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12
Boolean analysis of MOS circuits
 IEEE Transactions on Computeraided Design
, 1987
"... The switchlevel model represents a digital metaloxide semiconductor (MOS) circuit as a network of charge storage nodes connected by resistive transistor switches. The functionality of such a network can be expressed as a series of systems of Boolean equations. Solving these equations symbolically ..."
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Cited by 63 (14 self)
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The switchlevel model represents a digital metaloxide semiconductor (MOS) circuit as a network of charge storage nodes connected by resistive transistor switches. The functionality of such a network can be expressed as a series of systems of Boolean equations. Solving these equations symbolically yields a set of Boolean formulas that describe the mapping from input and current state to the new network state. This analysis supports the same class of networks as the switchlevel simulator MOSSIM II and provides the same functionality, including the handling of bidirectional e ects and indeterminate (X) logic values. In the worst case, the analysis of an n node network can yield a set of formulas containing a total of O(n 3) operations. However, all but a limited set of dense, passtransistor networks give formulas with O(n) total operations. The analysis can serve as the basis of e cient programs for a variety oflogic design tasks, including: logic simulation (on both conventional and special purpose computers), fault simulation, test generation, and symbolic veri cation.
A Methodology for Hardware Verification Based on Logic Simulation
 Journal of the ACM
, 1991
"... A logic simulator can prove the correctness of a digital circuit if it can be shown that only circuits fulfilling the system specification will produce a particular response to a sequence of simulation commands. This style of verification has advantages over other proof methods in being readily a ..."
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Cited by 37 (5 self)
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A logic simulator can prove the correctness of a digital circuit if it can be shown that only circuits fulfilling the system specification will produce a particular response to a sequence of simulation commands. This style of verification has advantages over other proof methods in being readily automated and requiring less attention on the part of the user to the lowlevel details of the design. It has advantages over other approaches to simulation in providing more reliable results, often at a comparable cost.
Ternary Simulation: A Refinement of Binary Functions or an Abstraction of RealTime Behaviour?
 PROCEEDINGS OF THE 3RD WORKSHOP ON DESIGNING CORRECT CIRCUITS (DCC96
, 1996
"... We prove the equivalence between the ternary circuit model and a notion of intuitionistic stabilization bounds. The results are obtained as an application of the timing interpretation of intuitionistic propositional logic presented in [12]. We show that if one takes an intensional view of the ternar ..."
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Cited by 9 (3 self)
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We prove the equivalence between the ternary circuit model and a notion of intuitionistic stabilization bounds. The results are obtained as an application of the timing interpretation of intuitionistic propositional logic presented in [12]. We show that if one takes an intensional view of the ternary model then the delays that have been abstracted away can be completely recovered. Our intensional soundness and completeness theorems imply that the extracted delays are both correct and exact; thus we have developed a framework which unifies ternary simulation and functional timing analysis. Our focus is on the combinational behaviour of gatelevel circuits with feedback.
Maximal causality analysis
 in: Conference on Application of Concurrency to System Design (ACSD
, 2005
"... Perfectly synchronous systems immediately react to the inputs of their environment, which may lead to socalled causality cycles between actions and their trigger conditions. Algorithms to analyze the consistency of such cycles usually extend data types by an additional value to explicitly indicate ..."
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Cited by 6 (6 self)
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Perfectly synchronous systems immediately react to the inputs of their environment, which may lead to socalled causality cycles between actions and their trigger conditions. Algorithms to analyze the consistency of such cycles usually extend data types by an additional value to explicitly indicate unknown values. In particular, Boolean functions are thereby extended to ternary functions. However, a Boolean function usually has several ternary extensions, and the result of the causality analysis depends on the chosen ternary extension. In this paper, we show that there always is a maximal ternary extension that allows one to solve as many causality problems as possible. Moreover, we elaborate the relationship to hazard elimination in hardware circuits, and finally show how the maximal ternary extension of a Boolean function can be efficiently computed by means of binary decision diagrams.
Timing Analysis of Combinational Circuits in Intuitionistic Propositional Logic
 Formal Methods in System Design
, 1999
"... Classical logic has so far been the logic of choice in formal hardware verification. This paper proposes the application of intuitionistic logic to the timing analysis of digital circuits. The intuitionistic setting serves two purposes. The modeltheoretic properties are exploited to handle the s ..."
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Cited by 5 (1 self)
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Classical logic has so far been the logic of choice in formal hardware verification. This paper proposes the application of intuitionistic logic to the timing analysis of digital circuits. The intuitionistic setting serves two purposes. The modeltheoretic properties are exploited to handle the secondorder nature of bounded delays in a purely propositional setting without need to introduce explicit time and temporal operators. The proof theoretic properties are exploited to extract quantitative timing information and to reintroduce explicit time in a convenient and systematic way. We present a natural Kripkestyle semantics for intuitionistic propositional logic, as a special case of a Kripke constraint model for Propositional Lax Logic [15], in which validity is validity up to stabilisation, and implication oe comes out as "boundedly gives rise to." We show that this semantics is equivalently characterised by a notion of realisability with stabilisation bounds as realisers...
Improving Constructiveness in Code Generators
, 2005
"... Perfectly synchronous systems immediately react to the inputs of their environment. These instantaneous reactions may result in socalled causality cycles between the actions of a system and their preconditions. Programs with causality cycles may or may not have consistent and unambiguous behaviors. ..."
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Cited by 5 (4 self)
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Perfectly synchronous systems immediately react to the inputs of their environment. These instantaneous reactions may result in socalled causality cycles between the actions of a system and their preconditions. Programs with causality cycles may or may not have consistent and unambiguous behaviors. For this reason, compilers have to perform a causality analysis before code generation. In this paper, we analyze the impact of different code generation schemes on causality analysis and propose translations that yield different degrees of causality. To this end, we first translate the program to an equation system as an intermediate representation, which may alternatively be viewed as a hardware circuit. The second step then analyzes the equation system as known from ternary simulation of hardware circuits with combinational feedback loops. In particular, we consider alternative ways to obtain logically equivalent equation systems that show, however, different results in causality analysis.
Metastable States in Asynchronous Digital Systems: Avoidable or Unavoidable?
, 1988
"... The synchronization of asynchronous signals can lead to metastable behavior and malfunction of digital circuits. It is believed  but not proved  that metastability principally cannot be avoided. Confusion exists about its practical importance. This paper shows that metastable behavior can be avoid ..."
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Cited by 4 (1 self)
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The synchronization of asynchronous signals can lead to metastable behavior and malfunction of digital circuits. It is believed  but not proved  that metastability principally cannot be avoided. Confusion exists about its practical importance. This paper shows that metastable behavior can be avoided by usage of quantum synchronizers in principle, but not in practice, and that conventional synchronizers unavoidably show metastable behavior in principle, but not in practice, if properly designed.
Characterising Combinational Timing Analyses in Intuitionistic Modal Logic
, 2000
"... The paper presents a new logical specification language, called Propositional Stabilisation Theory (PST), to capture the stabilisation behaviour of combinational inputoutput systems. PST is an intuitionistic propositional modal logic interpreted over sets of waveforms. The language is more economic ..."
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Cited by 3 (2 self)
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The paper presents a new logical specification language, called Propositional Stabilisation Theory (PST), to capture the stabilisation behaviour of combinational inputoutput systems. PST is an intuitionistic propositional modal logic interpreted over sets of waveforms. The language is more economic than conventional specification formalisms such as timed Boolean functions, temporal logic, or predicate logic in that it separates function from time and only introduces as much syntax as is necessary to deal with stabilisation behaviour. It is a purely propositional system but has secondorder expressiveness. One and the same Boolean function can be represented in various ways as a PST formula, giving rise to different timing models which associate different stabilisation delays with different parts of the functionality and adjust the granularity of the datadependency of delays within wide margins. We show how several standard timing analyses can be characterised as algorithms computing c...
Transforming Cyclic Circuits Into Acyclic Equivalents
"... Abstract—Designers and highlevel synthesis tools can introduce unwanted cycles in digital circuits, and for certain combinational functions, cyclic circuits that are stable and do not hold state are the smallest or most natural representations. Cyclic combinational circuits have welldefined functi ..."
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Abstract—Designers and highlevel synthesis tools can introduce unwanted cycles in digital circuits, and for certain combinational functions, cyclic circuits that are stable and do not hold state are the smallest or most natural representations. Cyclic combinational circuits have welldefined functional behavior yet wreak havoc with most logic synthesis and timing tools, which require combinational logic to be acyclic. As such, some sort of cycleremoval step is necessary to handle these circuits with existing tools. We present a twostage algorithm for transforming a combinational cyclic circuit into an equivalent acyclic circuit. The first part quickly and exactly characterizes all combinational behavior of a cyclic circuit. It starts by applying input patterns to each input and examining the boundary between gates whose outputs are and are not defined to find additional input patterns that make the circuit behave combinationally. It produces sets of assignments to inputs that together cover all combinational behavior. This can be used to report errors, as an optimization aid, or to restructure the circuit into an acyclic equivalent. The second stage of our algorithm does this restructuring by creating an acyclic circuit fragment from each of these assignments and assembles these fragments into an acyclic circuit that reproduces all the combinational behavior of the original cyclic circuit. Experiments show that our algorithm runs in seconds on reallife cyclic circuits, making it useful in practice. Index Terms—Acyclic circuits, combinational logic, constructiveness, cyclic circuits, resynthesis. I.