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12
Boolean analysis of MOS circuits
 IEEE Transactions on Computeraided Design
, 1987
"... The switchlevel model represents a digital metaloxide semiconductor (MOS) circuit as a network of charge storage nodes connected by resistive transistor switches. The functionality of such a network can be expressed as a series of systems of Boolean equations. Solving these equations symbolically ..."
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Cited by 63 (14 self)
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The switchlevel model represents a digital metaloxide semiconductor (MOS) circuit as a network of charge storage nodes connected by resistive transistor switches. The functionality of such a network can be expressed as a series of systems of Boolean equations. Solving these equations symbolically yields a set of Boolean formulas that describe the mapping from input and current state to the new network state. This analysis supports the same class of networks as the switchlevel simulator MOSSIM II and provides the same functionality, including the handling of bidirectional e ects and indeterminate (X) logic values. In the worst case, the analysis of an n node network can yield a set of formulas containing a total of O(n 3) operations. However, all but a limited set of dense, passtransistor networks give formulas with O(n) total operations. The analysis can serve as the basis of e cient programs for a variety oflogic design tasks, including: logic simulation (on both conventional and special purpose computers), fault simulation, test generation, and symbolic veri cation.
A Methodology for Hardware Verification Based on Logic Simulation
 Journal of the ACM
, 1991
"... A logic simulator can prove the correctness of a digital circuit if it can be shown that only circuits fulfilling the system specification will produce a particular response to a sequence of simulation commands. This style of verification has advantages over other proof methods in being readily a ..."
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Cited by 37 (5 self)
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A logic simulator can prove the correctness of a digital circuit if it can be shown that only circuits fulfilling the system specification will produce a particular response to a sequence of simulation commands. This style of verification has advantages over other proof methods in being readily automated and requiring less attention on the part of the user to the lowlevel details of the design. It has advantages over other approaches to simulation in providing more reliable results, often at a comparable cost.
Using ifthenelse DAGs for MultiLevel Logic Minimization
 Proc. of Advance Research in VLSI, C. Seitz Ed
, 1989
"... This article describes the use of ifthenelse dags for multilevel logic minimization. A new canonical form for ifthenelse dags, analogous to Bryant's canonical form for binary decision diagrams (bdds), is introduced. Twocuts are defined for binary decision diagrams, and a relationship is exhibi ..."
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Cited by 30 (2 self)
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This article describes the use of ifthenelse dags for multilevel logic minimization. A new canonical form for ifthenelse dags, analogous to Bryant's canonical form for binary decision diagrams (bdds), is introduced. Twocuts are defined for binary decision diagrams, and a relationship is exhibited between general ifthenelse expressions and the twocuts of a bdd for the same function. The canonical form is based on representing the lowest nontrivial twocut in the corresponding bdd, instead of the highest twocut, as in Bryant's canonical form. The definitions of prime and irredundant expressions are extended to ifthenelse dags.
Symbolic Trajectory Evaluation
 Formal Hardware Verification
, 1996
"... ion The main problem with model checking is the state explosion problem  the state space grows exponentially with system size. Two methods have some popularity in attacking this problem: compositional methods and abstraction. While they cannot solve the problem in general, they do offer significa ..."
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Cited by 26 (6 self)
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ion The main problem with model checking is the state explosion problem  the state space grows exponentially with system size. Two methods have some popularity in attacking this problem: compositional methods and abstraction. While they cannot solve the problem in general, they do offer significant improvements in performance. The direct method of verifying that a circuit has a property f is to show the model M satisfies f . The idea behind abstraction is that instead of verifying property f of model M , we verify property f A of model MA and the answer we get helps us answer the original problem. The system MA is an abstraction of the system M . One possibility is to build an abstraction MA that is equivalent (e.g. bisimilar [48]) to M . This sometimes leads to performance advantages if the state space of MA is smaller than M . This type of abstraction would more likely be used in model comparison (e.g. as in [38]). Typically, the behaviour of an abstraction is not equivalent...
Verifying a Static RAM Design by Logic Simulation
 FIFTH MIT CONFERENCE ON ADVANCED RESEARCH IN VLSI
, 1988
"... ..."
Verification of Synchronous Circuits by Symbolic Logic Simulation
 In Hardware Specification, Verification and Synthesis: Mathematical Aspects., Volume 408 of Lecture Notes in Computer Science
, 1989
"... A logic simulator can prove the correctness of a digital circuit when it can be shown that only circuits implementing the system specification will produce a particular response to a sequence of simulation commands. By simulating a circuit symbolically, verification can avoid the combinatorial explo ..."
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Cited by 4 (0 self)
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A logic simulator can prove the correctness of a digital circuit when it can be shown that only circuits implementing the system specification will produce a particular response to a sequence of simulation commands. By simulating a circuit symbolically, verification can avoid the combinatorial explosion that would normally occur when evaluating circuit operation over many combinations of input and initial state. In this paper, we describe our methodology for verifying synchronous circuits using the stack circuit of Mead and Conway as an illustrative example.
A Mathematically Precise TwoLevel Formal Hardware Verification Methodology
, 1992
"... Theoremproving and symbolic trajectory evaluation are both described as methods for the formal verification of hardware. They are both used to achieve a common goalcorrectly designed hardwareand both are intended to be an alternative to conventional methods based on nonexhaustive simulati ..."
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Cited by 3 (1 self)
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Theoremproving and symbolic trajectory evaluation are both described as methods for the formal verification of hardware. They are both used to achieve a common goalcorrectly designed hardwareand both are intended to be an alternative to conventional methods based on nonexhaustive simulation. However, they have different strengths and weaknesses. The main significance of this paper is the description of a twolevel approach to formal hardware verification, where the HOL theorem prover is combined with the Voss verification system. From symbolic trajectory evaluation we inherit a high degree of automation and accurate models of circuit behavior and timing. From interactive theoremproving we gain access to powerful mathematical tools such as induction and abstraction. The interface between the HOL and Voss is, however, more than just an ad hoc translation of verification results obtained by one tool into input for the other tool. We have developed a "mathematical" inte...
CMOS Circuit Verification with Symbolic SwitchLevel Timing Simulation
"... Symbolic switchlevel simulation has been extensively applied to the functional verification of CMOS circuitry. We have extended this technique to account for realvalued, datadependent delay values, and have developed a novel mechanism for symbolically computing datadependent Elmore delays. We pre ..."
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Cited by 1 (0 self)
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Symbolic switchlevel simulation has been extensively applied to the functional verification of CMOS circuitry. We have extended this technique to account for realvalued, datadependent delay values, and have developed a novel mechanism for symbolically computing datadependent Elmore delays. We present our symbolic simulation and delay calculation algorithms, and discuss their application to the timing and functional verification of fullcustom transistorlevel CMOS circuitry.
Sequential Equivalence Checking by Symbolic Simulation
 in Proc. FMACD
, 2000
"... An approach for interpreted sequential verification at different levels of abstraction by symbolic simulation is proposed. The equivalence checker has been used in previous work to compare two designs at rtlevel. We describe in this paper the automatic verification of gatelevel results of a co ..."
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Cited by 1 (0 self)
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An approach for interpreted sequential verification at different levels of abstraction by symbolic simulation is proposed. The equivalence checker has been used in previous work to compare two designs at rtlevel. We describe in this paper the automatic verification of gatelevel results of a commercial synthesis tool against a behavioral specification at rtlevel. The symbolic simulator has to cope with different numbers of control steps since the descriptions are not cycle equivalent. The state explosion problem of previous approaches relying on state traversal is avoided.
Decomposition & Functional Verification of FSMs
"... In this paper we present a new method for the decomposition of a Finite State Machine (FSM) into a network of interacting FSMs and a framework for the functional verification and simulation of the FSM network at different levels of abstraction. The problem of decomposition is solved using a multiway ..."
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In this paper we present a new method for the decomposition of a Finite State Machine (FSM) into a network of interacting FSMs and a framework for the functional verification and simulation of the FSM network at different levels of abstraction. The problem of decomposition is solved using a multiway graph partitioning technique. The number of submachines is determined dynamically during the partitioning process. The verification algorithm is used to verify the correctness of the FSM network at any stage of the synthesis process. It can be used to verify (a) the result of FSM decomposition on a behavioral level, (b) the encoded FSM network, and (c) the network after logic optimization. Our verification technique is based on an efficient enumerationsimulation method which involves traversal of the state transition graph of the prototype machine in a depth first fashion and simulation of the decomposed machine network. Both the decompostion and verification/simulation algorithms have bee...