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Parallel and Distributed Simulation of Discrete Event Systems
, 1995
"... The achievements attained in accelerating the simulation of the dynamics of complex discrete event systems using parallel or distributed multiprocessing environments are comprehensively presented. While parallel discrete event simulation (DES) governs the evolution of the system over simulated time ..."
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Cited by 103 (17 self)
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The achievements attained in accelerating the simulation of the dynamics of complex discrete event systems using parallel or distributed multiprocessing environments are comprehensively presented. While parallel discrete event simulation (DES) governs the evolution of the system over simulated time in an iterative SIMD way, distributed DES tries to spatially decompose the event structure underlying the system, and executes event occurrences in spatial subregions by logical processes (LPs) usually assigned to different (physical) processing elements. Synchronization protocols are necessary in this approach to avoid timing inconsistencies and to guarantee the preservation of event causalities across LPs. Included in the survey are discussions on the sources and levels of parallelism, synchronous vs. asynchronous simulation and principles of LP simulation. In the context of conservative LP simulation (Chandy/Misra/Bryant) deadlock avoidance and deadlock detection/recovery strategies, Con...
Special Purpose Parallel Computing
 Lectures on Parallel Computation
, 1993
"... A vast amount of work has been done in recent years on the design, analysis, implementation and verification of special purpose parallel computing systems. This paper presents a survey of various aspects of this work. A long, but by no means complete, bibliography is given. 1. Introduction Turing ..."
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Cited by 77 (5 self)
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A vast amount of work has been done in recent years on the design, analysis, implementation and verification of special purpose parallel computing systems. This paper presents a survey of various aspects of this work. A long, but by no means complete, bibliography is given. 1. Introduction Turing [365] demonstrated that, in principle, a single general purpose sequential machine could be designed which would be capable of efficiently performing any computation which could be performed by a special purpose sequential machine. The importance of this universality result for subsequent practical developments in computing cannot be overstated. It showed that, for a given computational problem, the additional efficiency advantages which could be gained by designing a special purpose sequential machine for that problem would not be great. Around 1944, von Neumann produced a proposal [66, 389] for a general purpose storedprogram sequential computer which captured the fundamental principles of...
Automatic verification of sequential circuits using temporal logic
 IEEE Transactions on Computer C35
, 1986
"... AbstractVerifying the correctness of sequential circuits has been an important problem for a long time. But lack of any formal and efficient method of verification has prevented the creation of practical design aids for this purpose. Since all the known techniques of simulation apd prototype testi ..."
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Cited by 74 (11 self)
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AbstractVerifying the correctness of sequential circuits has been an important problem for a long time. But lack of any formal and efficient method of verification has prevented the creation of practical design aids for this purpose. Since all the known techniques of simulation apd prototype testing are time consuming and not very reliable, there is an acute need for such tools. In this paper we describe an automatic verification system for sequential circuits in which specifications are expressed in a propositional temporal logic. In contrast to most other mechanical verification systems, our system does not require any user assistance and is quite;fastexperimental results show that state machines with several hundred states can be checked for correctness in a matter of seconds! The verification system uses a simple and efficient algorithm, called a model checker. The algorithm works in two steps: in the first step, it builds a labeled statetransition graph; and in the second step, it determines the truth of a temporal formula with. respect to the statetransition graph. We discuss two different techniques that we thave implemented for automatically generating the statetransition graphs: The first involves extracting the state graph directly feom the circuit by exhaustive simulation. The second obtains the state graph by compilation from an HDL specification of the original circuit. Index TermsAsynchronous circuits, hardware verification, sequential circuit verification, temporal logic, temporal logic model checking. I.
Boolean analysis of MOS circuits
 IEEE Transactions on Computeraided Design
, 1987
"... The switchlevel model represents a digital metaloxide semiconductor (MOS) circuit as a network of charge storage nodes connected by resistive transistor switches. The functionality of such a network can be expressed as a series of systems of Boolean equations. Solving these equations symbolically ..."
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Cited by 63 (14 self)
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The switchlevel model represents a digital metaloxide semiconductor (MOS) circuit as a network of charge storage nodes connected by resistive transistor switches. The functionality of such a network can be expressed as a series of systems of Boolean equations. Solving these equations symbolically yields a set of Boolean formulas that describe the mapping from input and current state to the new network state. This analysis supports the same class of networks as the switchlevel simulator MOSSIM II and provides the same functionality, including the handling of bidirectional e ects and indeterminate (X) logic values. In the worst case, the analysis of an n node network can yield a set of formulas containing a total of O(n 3) operations. However, all but a limited set of dense, passtransistor networks give formulas with O(n) total operations. The analysis can serve as the basis of e cient programs for a variety oflogic design tasks, including: logic simulation (on both conventional and special purpose computers), fault simulation, test generation, and symbolic veri cation.
COSMOS: A compiled simulator for MOS circuits
 PROCEEDINGS OF THE 24TH DESIGN AUTOMATION CONFERENCE
, 1987
"... The cosmos simulator provides fast and accurate switchlevel modeling of mos digital circuits. It attains high performance by preprocessing the transistor network into a functionally equivalent Boolean representation. This description, produced by the symbolic analyzer anamos, captures all aspects o ..."
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Cited by 52 (0 self)
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The cosmos simulator provides fast and accurate switchlevel modeling of mos digital circuits. It attains high performance by preprocessing the transistor network into a functionally equivalent Boolean representation. This description, produced by the symbolic analyzer anamos, captures all aspects of switchlevel networks including bidirectional transistors, stored charge, different signal strengths, and indeterminate (X) logic values. The lgcc program translates the Boolean representation into a set of machine language evaluation procedures and initialized data structures. These procedures and data structures are compiled along with code implementing the simulation kernel and user interface to produce the simulation program. The simulation program runs an order of magnitude faster than our previous simulator mossim ii.
A Methodology for Hardware Verification Based on Logic Simulation
 Journal of the ACM
, 1991
"... A logic simulator can prove the correctness of a digital circuit if it can be shown that only circuits fulfilling the system specification will produce a particular response to a sequence of simulation commands. This style of verification has advantages over other proof methods in being readily a ..."
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Cited by 37 (5 self)
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A logic simulator can prove the correctness of a digital circuit if it can be shown that only circuits fulfilling the system specification will produce a particular response to a sequence of simulation commands. This style of verification has advantages over other proof methods in being readily automated and requiring less attention on the part of the user to the lowlevel details of the design. It has advantages over other approaches to simulation in providing more reliable results, often at a comparable cost.
Exploiting Symmetry When Verifying TransistorLevel Circuits by Symbolic Trajectory Evaluation
, 1997
"... In this paper we describe the use of symmetry for verification of transistorlevel circuits by symbolic trajectory evaluation. We show that exploiting symmetry can allow one to verify systems several orders of magnitude larger than otherwise possible. We classify symmetries in circuits as struct ..."
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Cited by 23 (5 self)
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In this paper we describe the use of symmetry for verification of transistorlevel circuits by symbolic trajectory evaluation. We show that exploiting symmetry can allow one to verify systems several orders of magnitude larger than otherwise possible. We classify symmetries in circuits as structural symmetries, arising from similarities in circuit structure, data symmetries, arising from similarities in the handling of data values, and mixed structuraldata symmetries. We use graph isomorphism testing and symbolic simulation to verify the symmetries in the original circuit. Using conservative approximations, we partition a circuit to expose the symmetries in its components, and construct reduced system models which can be verified efficiently. We have verified Static Random Access Memory circuits with up to 1.5 Million transistors.
Formal Hardware Verification By Symbolic Trajectory Evaluation
, 1997
"... Formal verification uses a set of languages, tools, and techniques to mathematically reason about the correctness of a hardware system. The form of mathematical reasoning is dependent upon the hardware system. This thesis concentrates on hardware systems that have a simple deterministic highlevel s ..."
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Cited by 19 (1 self)
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Formal verification uses a set of languages, tools, and techniques to mathematically reason about the correctness of a hardware system. The form of mathematical reasoning is dependent upon the hardware system. This thesis concentrates on hardware systems that have a simple deterministic highlevel specification but have implementations that exhibit highly nondeterministic behaviors. A typical example of such hardware systems are processors. At the high level, the sequencing model inherent in processors is the sequential execution model. The underlying implementation, however, uses features such as nondeterministic interface protocols, instruction pipelines, and multiple instruction issue which leads to nondeterministic behaviors. The goal is to develop a methodology with which a designer can show that a circuit fulfills the abstract specification of the desired system behavior. The abstract specification describes the highlevel behavior of the system independent of any timing or implem...
Verity  a Formal Verification Program for Custom CMOS Circuits
 IBM JOURNAL OF RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT
, 1994
"... In an effort to fully exploit CMOS performance, custom design techniques are used extensively in commercial microprocessor design. However, given the complexity of current generation processors and the necessity for manual designer intervention throughout the design process, proving design correc ..."
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Cited by 19 (5 self)
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In an effort to fully exploit CMOS performance, custom design techniques are used extensively in commercial microprocessor design. However, given the complexity of current generation processors and the necessity for manual designer intervention throughout the design process, proving design correctness is a major concern. In this paper we discuss Verity, a formal verification program for symbolically proving the equivalence between a highlevel design specification and a MOS transistorlevel implementation. Verity
Algorithmic Aspects of Symbolic Switch Network Analysis
 IEEE Trans. CAD/IC
, 1987
"... A network of switches controlled by Boolean variables can be represented as a system of Boolean equations. The solution of this system gives a symbolic description of the conducting paths in the network. Gaussian elimination provides an efficient technique for solving sparse systems of Boolean eq ..."
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Cited by 16 (5 self)
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A network of switches controlled by Boolean variables can be represented as a system of Boolean equations. The solution of this system gives a symbolic description of the conducting paths in the network. Gaussian elimination provides an efficient technique for solving sparse systems of Boolean equations. For the class of networks that arise when analyzing digital metaloxide semiconductor (MOS) circuits, a simple pivot selection rule guarantees that most s switch networks encountered in practice can be solved with O(s) operations. When represented by a directed acyclic graph, the set of Boolean formulas generated by the analysis has total size bounded by the number of operations required by the Gaussian elimination. This paper presents the mathematical basis for systems of Boolean equations, their solution by Gaussian elimination, and data structures and algorithms for representing and manipulating Boolean formulas.