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Setoids in Type Theory
, 2000
"... Formalising mathematics in dependent type theory often requires to use setoids, i.e. types with an explicit equality relation, as a representation of sets. This paper surveys some possible denitions of setoids and assesses their suitability as a basis for developing mathematics. In particular, we ..."
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Cited by 44 (4 self)
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Formalising mathematics in dependent type theory often requires to use setoids, i.e. types with an explicit equality relation, as a representation of sets. This paper surveys some possible denitions of setoids and assesses their suitability as a basis for developing mathematics. In particular, we argue that a commonly advocated approach to partial setoids is unsuitable, and more generally that total setoids seem better suited for formalising mathematics. 1
Equilogical Spaces
, 1998
"... It is well known that one can build models of full higherorder dependent type theory (also called the calculus of constructions) using partial equivalence relations (PERs) and assemblies over a partial combinatory algebra (PCA). But the idea of categories of PERs and ERs (total equivalence relation ..."
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Cited by 37 (12 self)
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It is well known that one can build models of full higherorder dependent type theory (also called the calculus of constructions) using partial equivalence relations (PERs) and assemblies over a partial combinatory algebra (PCA). But the idea of categories of PERs and ERs (total equivalence relations) can be applied to other structures as well. In particular, we can easily dene the category of ERs and equivalencepreserving continuous mappings over the standard category Top 0 of topological T 0 spaces; we call these spaces (a topological space together with an ER) equilogical spaces and the resulting category Equ. We show that this categoryin contradistinction to Top 0 is a cartesian closed category. The direct proof outlined here uses the equivalence of the category Equ to the category PEqu of PERs over algebraic lattices (a full subcategory of Top 0 that is well known to be cartesian closed from domain theory). In another paper with Carboni and Rosolini (cited herein) a more abstract categorical generalization shows why many such categories are cartesian closed. The category Equ obviously contains Top 0 as a full subcategory, and it naturally contains many other well known subcategories. In particular, we show why, as a consequence of work of Ershov, Berger, and others, the KleeneKreisel hierarchy of countable functionals of nite types can be naturally constructed in Equ from the natural numbers object N by repeated use in Equ of exponentiation and binary products. We also develop for Equ notions of modest sets (a category equivalent to Equ) and assemblies to explain why a model of dependent type theory is obtained. We make some comparisons of this model to other, known models. 1
Proving Equalities in a Commutative Ring Done Right in Coq
 Theorem Proving in Higher Order Logics (TPHOLs 2005), LNCS 3603
, 2005
"... We present a new implementation of a reflexive tactic which solves equalities in a ring structure inside the Coq system. The e#ciency is improved to a point that we can now prove equalities that were previously beyond reach. A special care has been taken to implement e#cient algorithms while kee ..."
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Cited by 33 (1 self)
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We present a new implementation of a reflexive tactic which solves equalities in a ring structure inside the Coq system. The e#ciency is improved to a point that we can now prove equalities that were previously beyond reach. A special care has been taken to implement e#cient algorithms while keeping the complexity of the correctness proofs low.
Extensional Equality in Intensional Type Theory
 In LICS 99
, 1999
"... We present a new approach to introducing an extensional propositional equality in Intensional Type Theory. Our construction is based on the observation that there is a sound, intensional setoid model in Intensional Type theory with a proofirrelevant universe of propositions and rules for  and t ..."
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Cited by 30 (14 self)
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We present a new approach to introducing an extensional propositional equality in Intensional Type Theory. Our construction is based on the observation that there is a sound, intensional setoid model in Intensional Type theory with a proofirrelevant universe of propositions and rules for  and types. The Type Theory corresponding to this model is decidable, has no irreducible constants and permits large eliminations, which are essential for universes. Keywords. Type Theory, categorical models. 1. Introduction and Summary In Intensional Type Theory (see e.g. [11]) we differentiate between a decidable definitional equality (which we denote by =) and a propositional equality type (Id ( ; ) for any given type ) which requires proof. Typing only depends on definitional equality and hence is decidable. In Intensional Type Theory the type corresponding to the principle of extensionality Ext x2:(x) f;g2(x2:(x)) ( x2 Id (x) (f(x); g(x))) ! Id x2:(x) (f; g) is not...
A Design Structure for Higher Order Quotients
 In Proc. of the 18th International Conference on Theorem Proving in Higher Order Logics (TPHOLs), volume 3603 of LNCS
, 2005
"... Abstract. The quotient operation is a standard feature of set theory, where a set is partitioned into subsets by an equivalence relation. We reinterpret this idea for higher order logic, where types are divided by an equivalence relation to create new types, called quotient types. We present a desig ..."
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Abstract. The quotient operation is a standard feature of set theory, where a set is partitioned into subsets by an equivalence relation. We reinterpret this idea for higher order logic, where types are divided by an equivalence relation to create new types, called quotient types. We present a design to mechanically construct quotient types as new types in the logic, and to support the automatic lifting of constants and theorems about the original types to corresponding constants and theorems about the quotient types. This design exceeds the functionality of Harrison’s package, creating quotients of multiple mutually recursive types simultaneously, and supporting the equivalence of aggregate types, such as lists and pairs. Most importantly, this design supports the creation of higher order quotients, which enable the automatic lifting of theorems with quantification over functions of any higher order. 1
Type Theory via Exact Categories (Extended Abstract)
 In Proceedings of the 13th Annual IEEE Symposium on Logic in Computer Science LICS '98
, 1998
"... Partial equivalence relations (and categories of these) are a standard tool in semantics of type theories and programming languages, since they often provide a cartesian closed category with extended definability. Using the theory of exact categories, we give a categorytheoretic explanation of why ..."
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Partial equivalence relations (and categories of these) are a standard tool in semantics of type theories and programming languages, since they often provide a cartesian closed category with extended definability. Using the theory of exact categories, we give a categorytheoretic explanation of why the construction of a category of partial equivalence relations often produces a cartesian closed category. We show how several familiar examples of categories of partial equivalence relations fit into the general framework. 1 Introduction Partial equivalence relations (and categories of these) are a standard tool in semantics of programming languages, see e.g. [2, 5, 7, 9, 15, 17, 20, 22, 35] and [6, 29] for extensive surveys. They are usefully applied to give proofs of correctness and adequacy since they often provide a cartesian closed category with additional properties. Take for instance a partial equivalence relation on the set of natural numbers: a binary relation R ` N\ThetaN on th...
Specification Refinement with System F
 In Proc. CSL'99, volume 1683 of LNCS
, 1999
"... . Essential concepts of algebraic specification refinement are translated into a typetheoretic setting involving System F and Reynolds' relational parametricity assertion as expressed in Plotkin and Abadi's logic for parametric polymorphism. At first order, the typetheoretic setting ..."
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Cited by 6 (3 self)
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. Essential concepts of algebraic specification refinement are translated into a typetheoretic setting involving System F and Reynolds' relational parametricity assertion as expressed in Plotkin and Abadi's logic for parametric polymorphism. At first order, the typetheoretic setting provides a canonical picture of algebraic specification refinement. At higher order, the typetheoretic setting allows future generalisation of the principles of algebraic specification refinement to higher order and polymorphism. We show the equivalence of the acquired typetheoretic notion of specification refinement with that from algebraic specification. To do this, a generic algebraicspecification strategy for behavioural refinement proofs is mirrored in the typetheoretic setting. 1 Introduction This paper aims to express in type theory certain essential concepts of algebraic specification refinement. The benefit to algebraic specification is that inherently firstorder concepts are tra...
Finite models for formal security proofs
 Journal of Computer Security
"... Firstorder logic models of security for cryptographic protocols, based on variants of the DolevYao model, are now wellestablished tools. Given that we have checked a given security protocol π using a given firstorder prover, how hard is it to extract a formally checkable proof of it, as required ..."
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Firstorder logic models of security for cryptographic protocols, based on variants of the DolevYao model, are now wellestablished tools. Given that we have checked a given security protocol π using a given firstorder prover, how hard is it to extract a formally checkable proof of it, as required in, e.g., common criteria at the highest evaluation level (EAL7)? We demonstrate that this is surprisingly hard in the general case: the problem is nonrecursive. Nonetheless, we show that we can instead extract finite models M from a set S of clauses representing π, automatically, and give two ways of doing so. We then define a modelchecker testing M  = S, and show how we can instrument it to output a formally checkable proof, e.g., in Coq. Experience on a number of protocols shows that this is practical, and that even complex (secure) protocols modulo equational theories have small finite models, making our approach suitable.
Higher Order Quotients in Higher Order Logic
"... Abstract. The quotient operation is a standard feature of set theory, where a set is partitioned into subsets by an equivalence relation. We reinterpret this idea for Higher Order Logic (HOL), where types are divided by an equivalence relation to create new types, called quotient types. We present a ..."
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Abstract. The quotient operation is a standard feature of set theory, where a set is partitioned into subsets by an equivalence relation. We reinterpret this idea for Higher Order Logic (HOL), where types are divided by an equivalence relation to create new types, called quotient types. We present a tool for the Higher Order Logic theorem prover to mechanically construct quotient types as new types in the HOL logic, and to automatically lift constants and theorems about the original types to corresponding constants and theorems about the quotient types. This package exceeds the functionality of Harrison’s package, creating quotients of multiple mutually recursive types simultaneously, and supporting the equivalence of aggregate types, such as lists and pairs. Most importantly, this package successfully creates higherorder quotients, automatically lifting theorems with quantification over functions of any higher order. This is accomplished through the use of partial equivalence relations, a possibly nonreflexive version of equivalence relations. We demonstrate this tool by lifting Abadi and Cardelli’s sigma calculus. 1
Structured Formal Development with Quotient Types in Isabelle/HOL
"... Abstract. General purpose theorem provers provide sophisticated proof methods, but lack some of the advanced structuring mechanisms found in specification languages. This paper builds on previous work extending the theorem prover Isabelle with such mechanisms. A way to build the quotient type over a ..."
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Abstract. General purpose theorem provers provide sophisticated proof methods, but lack some of the advanced structuring mechanisms found in specification languages. This paper builds on previous work extending the theorem prover Isabelle with such mechanisms. A way to build the quotient type over a given base type and an equivalence relation on it, and a generalised notion of folding over quotiented types is given as a formalised highlevel step called a design tactic. The core of this paper are four axiomatic theories capturing the design tactic. The applicability is demonstrated by derivations of implementations for finite multisets and finite sets from lists in Isabelle. 1