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310
Randomized Algorithms
, 1995
"... Randomized algorithms, once viewed as a tool in computational number theory, have by now found widespread application. Growth has been fueled by the two major benefits of randomization: simplicity and speed. For many applications a randomized algorithm is the fastest algorithm available, or the simp ..."
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Cited by 1884 (38 self)
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Randomized algorithms, once viewed as a tool in computational number theory, have by now found widespread application. Growth has been fueled by the two major benefits of randomization: simplicity and speed. For many applications a randomized algorithm is the fastest algorithm available, or the simplest, or both. A randomized algorithm is an algorithm that uses random numbers to influence the choices it makes in the course of its computation. Thus its behavior (typically quantified as running time or quality of output) varies from
Designing Programs That Check Their Work
, 1989
"... A program correctness checker is an algorithm for checking the output of a computation. That is, given a program and an instance on which the program is run, the checker certifies whether the output of the program on that instance is correct. This paper defines the concept of a program checker. It d ..."
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Cited by 308 (17 self)
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A program correctness checker is an algorithm for checking the output of a computation. That is, given a program and an instance on which the program is run, the checker certifies whether the output of the program on that instance is correct. This paper defines the concept of a program checker. It designs program checkers for a few specific and carefully chosen problems in the class FP of functions computable in polynomial time. Problems in FP for which checkers are presented in this paper include Sorting, Matrix Rank and GCD. It also applies methods of modern cryptography, especially the idea of a probabilistic interactive proof, to the design of program checkers for group theoretic computations. Two strucural theorems are proven here. One is a characterization of problems that can be checked. The other theorem establishes equivalence classes of problems such that whenever one problem in a class is checkable, all problems in the class are checkable.
The PARSEC benchmark suite: Characterization and architectural implications
 IN PRINCETON UNIVERSITY
, 2008
"... This paper presents and characterizes the Princeton Application Repository for SharedMemory Computers (PARSEC), a benchmark suite for studies of ChipMultiprocessors (CMPs). Previous available benchmarks for multiprocessors have focused on highperformance computing applications and used a limited ..."
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Cited by 304 (3 self)
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This paper presents and characterizes the Princeton Application Repository for SharedMemory Computers (PARSEC), a benchmark suite for studies of ChipMultiprocessors (CMPs). Previous available benchmarks for multiprocessors have focused on highperformance computing applications and used a limited number of synchronization methods. PARSEC includes emerging applications in recognition, mining and synthesis (RMS) as well as systems applications which mimic largescale multithreaded commercial programs. Our characterization shows that the benchmark suite covers a wide spectrum of working sets, locality, data sharing, synchronization and offchip traffic. The benchmark suite has been made available to the public.
A New Approach to Text Searching
"... We introduce a family of simple and fast algorithms for solving the classical string matching problem, string matching with classes of symbols, don't care symbols and complement symbols, and multiple patterns. In addition we solve the same problems allowing up to k mismatches. Among the feature ..."
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Cited by 226 (15 self)
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We introduce a family of simple and fast algorithms for solving the classical string matching problem, string matching with classes of symbols, don't care symbols and complement symbols, and multiple patterns. In addition we solve the same problems allowing up to k mismatches. Among the features of these algorithms are that they don't need to buffer the input, they are real time algorithms (for constant size patterns), and they are suitable to be implemented in hardware. 1 Introduction String searching is a very important component of many problems, including text editing, bibliographic retrieval, and symbol manipulation. Recent surveys of string searching can be found in [17, 4]. The string matching problem consists of finding all occurrences of a pattern of length m in a text of length n. We generalize the problem allowing "don't care" symbols, the complement of a symbol, and any finite class of symbols. We solve this problem for one or more patterns, with or without mismatches. Fo...
Using Secure Coprocessors
, 1994
"... The views and conclusions in this document are those of the authors and do not necessarily represent the official policies or endorsements of any of the research sponsors. How do we build distributed systems that are secure? Cryptographic techniques can be used to secure the communications between p ..."
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Cited by 153 (8 self)
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The views and conclusions in this document are those of the authors and do not necessarily represent the official policies or endorsements of any of the research sponsors. How do we build distributed systems that are secure? Cryptographic techniques can be used to secure the communications between physically separated systems, but this is not enough: we must be able to guarantee the privacy of the cryptographic keys and the integrity of the cryptographic functions, in addition to the integrity of the security kernel and access control databases we have on the machines. Physical security is a central assumption upon which secure distributed systems are built; without this foundation even the best cryptosystem or the most secure kernel will crumble. In this thesis, I address the distributed security problem by proposing the addition of a small, physically secure hardware module, a secure coprocessor, to standard workstations and PCs. My central axiom is that secure coprocessors are able to maintain the privacy of the data they process. This thesis attacks the distributed security problem from multiple sides. First, I analyze the security properties of existing system components, both at the hardware and
STAMP: Stanford Transactional Applications for MultiProcessing
"... Abstractâ€”Transactional Memory (TM) is emerging as a promising technology to simplify parallel programming. While several TM systems have been proposed in the research literature, we are still missing the tools and workloads necessary to analyze and compare the proposals. Most TM systems have been ev ..."
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Cited by 112 (7 self)
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Abstractâ€”Transactional Memory (TM) is emerging as a promising technology to simplify parallel programming. While several TM systems have been proposed in the research literature, we are still missing the tools and workloads necessary to analyze and compare the proposals. Most TM systems have been evaluated using microbenchmarks, which may not be representative of any realworld behavior, or individual applications, which do not stress a wide range of execution scenarios. We introduce the Stanford Transactional Applications for MultiProcessing (STAMP), a comprehensive benchmark suite for evaluating TM systems. STAMP includes eight applications and thirty variants of input parameters and data sets in order to represent several application domains and cover a wide range of transactional execution cases (frequent or rare use of transactions, large or small transactions, high or low contention, etc.). Moreover, STAMP is portable across many types of TM systems, including hardware, software, and hybrid systems. In this paper, we provide descriptions and a detailed characterization of the applications in STAMP. We also use the suite to evaluate six different TM systems, identify their shortcomings, and motivate further research on their performance characteristics. I.
A Framework for Source Code Search using Program Patterns
 IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering
, 1994
"... For maintainers involved in understanding and reengineering large software, locating source code fragments that match certain patterns is a critical task. Existing solutions to the problem are few, and they either involve manual, painstaking scans of the source code using tools based on regular expr ..."
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Cited by 101 (2 self)
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For maintainers involved in understanding and reengineering large software, locating source code fragments that match certain patterns is a critical task. Existing solutions to the problem are few, and they either involve manual, painstaking scans of the source code using tools based on regular expressions, or the use of large, integrated software engineering environments that include simple patternbased query processors in their toolkits. We present a framework in which pattern languages are used to specify interesting code features. The pattern languages are derived by extending the source programming language with patternmatching symbols. We describe SCRUPLE, a finite state machinebased source code search tool, that efficiently implements this framework. We also present experimental performance results obtained from a SCRUPLE prototype, and the user interface of a source code browser built on top of SCRUPLE. Keywords: Reverse engineering, software maintenance, software reengineer...
On Similarity Queries for TimeSeries Data: Constraint Specification and Implementation
, 1995
"... Constraints are a natural mechanism for the specification of similarity queries on timeseries data. However, to realize the expressive power of constraint programming in this context, one must provide the matching implementation technology for efficient indexing of very large data sets. In this pap ..."
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Cited by 101 (4 self)
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Constraints are a natural mechanism for the specification of similarity queries on timeseries data. However, to realize the expressive power of constraint programming in this context, one must provide the matching implementation technology for efficient indexing of very large data sets. In this paper, we formalize the intuitive notions of exact and approximate similarity between timeseries patterns and data. Our definition of similarity extends the distance metric used in [2, 7] with invariance under a group of transformations. Our main observation is that the resulting, more expressive, set of constraint queries can be supported by a new indexing technique, which preserves all the desirable properties of the indexing scheme proposed in [2, 7].
Some applications of Rabin's fingerprinting method
 Sequences II: Methods in Communications, Security, and Computer Science
, 1993
"... Rabin's fingerprinting scheme is based on arithmetic modulo an irreducible polynomial with coefficients in Z 2 . This paper presents an implementation and several applications of this scheme that take considerable advantage of its algebraic properties. 1 Introduction Fingerprints are short tag ..."
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Cited by 90 (3 self)
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Rabin's fingerprinting scheme is based on arithmetic modulo an irreducible polynomial with coefficients in Z 2 . This paper presents an implementation and several applications of this scheme that take considerable advantage of its algebraic properties. 1 Introduction Fingerprints are short tags for larger objects. They have the property that if two fingerprints are different then the corresponding objects are certainly different and there is only a small probability that two different objects have the same fingerprint. (The latter event is called a collision.) More precisely, a fingerprinting scheme is a certain collection of functions F = n f :\Omega ! f0; 1g k o , where\Omega is the set of all possible objects of interest and k is the length of the fingerprint, such that, for any choice of a fixed set S ae\Omega of n distinct objects, if f is chosen uniformly at random in F , then with high probability jf(S)j = jSj : In other words, if an adversary chooses a set S ae\Ome...
Dyad: A System for Using Physically Secure Coprocessors
 Proceedings of the Joint HarvardMIT Workshop on Technological Strategies for the Protection of Intellectual Property in the Network Multimedia Environment
, 1991
"... The Dyad project at Carnegie Mellon University is using physically secure coprocessors to achieve new protocols and systems addressing a number of perplexing security problems. These coprocessors can be produced as boards or integrated circuit chips and can be directly inserted in standard workstati ..."
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Cited by 85 (1 self)
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The Dyad project at Carnegie Mellon University is using physically secure coprocessors to achieve new protocols and systems addressing a number of perplexing security problems. These coprocessors can be produced as boards or integrated circuit chips and can be directly inserted in standard workstations or PCstyle computers. This paper presents a set of security problems and easily implementable solutions that exploit the power of physically secure coprocessors: (1) protecting the integrity of publicly accessible workstations, (2) tamperproof accounting/audit trails, (3) copy protection, and (4) electronic currency without centralized servers. We outline the architectural requirements for the use of secure coprocessors. 1 Introduction and Motivation The Dyad project at Carnegie Mellon University is using physically secure coprocessors to achieve new protocols and systems addressing a number of perplexing security problems. These coprocessors can be produced as boards or integrated ...