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A Brief History of Generative Models for Power Law and Lognormal Distributions
 INTERNET MATHEMATICS
"... Recently, I became interested in a current debate over whether file size distributions are best modelled by a power law distribution or a a lognormal distribution. In trying ..."
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Cited by 252 (7 self)
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Recently, I became interested in a current debate over whether file size distributions are best modelled by a power law distribution or a a lognormal distribution. In trying
Statistical properties of community structure in large social and information networks
"... A large body of work has been devoted to identifying community structure in networks. A community is often though of as a set of nodes that has more connections between its members than to the remainder of the network. In this paper, we characterize as a function of size the statistical and structur ..."
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Cited by 120 (10 self)
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A large body of work has been devoted to identifying community structure in networks. A community is often though of as a set of nodes that has more connections between its members than to the remainder of the network. In this paper, we characterize as a function of size the statistical and structural properties of such sets of nodes. We define the network community profile plot, which characterizes the “best ” possible community—according to the conductance measure—over a wide range of size scales, and we study over 70 large sparse realworld networks taken from a wide range of application domains. Our results suggest a significantly more refined picture of community structure in large realworld networks than has been appreciated previously. Our most striking finding is that in nearly every network dataset we examined, we observe tight but almost trivial communities at very small scales, and at larger size scales, the best possible communities gradually “blend in ” with the rest of the network and thus become less “communitylike.” This behavior is not explained, even at a qualitative level, by any of the commonlyused network generation models. Moreover, this behavior is exactly the opposite of what one would expect based on experience with and intuition from expander graphs, from graphs that are wellembeddable in a lowdimensional structure, and from small social networks that have served as testbeds of community detection algorithms. We have found, however, that a generative model, in which new edges are added via an iterative “forest fire” burning process, is able to produce graphs exhibiting a network community structure similar to our observations.
Community structure in large networks: Natural cluster sizes and the absence of large welldefined clusters
, 2008
"... A large body of work has been devoted to defining and identifying clusters or communities in social and information networks, i.e., in graphs in which the nodes represent underlying social entities and the edges represent some sort of interaction between pairs of nodes. Most such research begins wit ..."
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Cited by 79 (6 self)
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A large body of work has been devoted to defining and identifying clusters or communities in social and information networks, i.e., in graphs in which the nodes represent underlying social entities and the edges represent some sort of interaction between pairs of nodes. Most such research begins with the premise that a community or a cluster should be thought of as a set of nodes that has more and/or better connections between its members than to the remainder of the network. In this paper, we explore from a novel perspective several questions related to identifying meaningful communities in large social and information networks, and we come to several striking conclusions. Rather than defining a procedure to extract sets of nodes from a graph and then attempt to interpret these sets as a “real ” communities, we employ approximation algorithms for the graph partitioning problem to characterize as a function of size the statistical and structural properties of partitions of graphs that could plausibly be interpreted as communities. In particular, we define the network community profile plot, which characterizes the “best ” possible community—according to the conductance measure—over a wide range of size scales. We study over 100 large realworld networks, ranging from traditional and online social networks, to technological and information networks and
Epidemic Spreading in Real Networks: An Eigenvalue Viewpoint
 In SRDS
, 2003
"... Abstract How will a virus propagate in a real network?Does an epidemic threshold exist for a finite powerlaw graph, or any finite graph? How long does ittake to disinfect a network given particular values of infection rate and virus death rate? We answer the first question by providing equations th ..."
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Cited by 77 (18 self)
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Abstract How will a virus propagate in a real network?Does an epidemic threshold exist for a finite powerlaw graph, or any finite graph? How long does ittake to disinfect a network given particular values of infection rate and virus death rate? We answer the first question by providing equations that accurately model virus propagation in any network including real and synthesized networkgraphs. We propose a general epidemic threshold condition that applies to arbitrary graphs: weprove that, under reasonable approximations, the epidemic threshold for a network is closely relatedto the largest eigenvalue of its adjacency matrix. Finally, for the last question, we show that infections tend to zero exponentially below the epidemic threshold. We show that our epidemic threshold modelsubsumes many known thresholds for specialcase graphs (e.g., Erd"osR'enyi, BA powerlaw, homogeneous); we show that the threshold tends to zero for infinite powerlaw graphs. Finally, we illustrate thepredictive power of our model with extensive experiments on real and synthesized graphs. We show thatour threshold condition holds for arbitrary graphs.
Graph mining: Laws, generators, and algorithms
 ACM COMPUTING SURVEYS
, 2006
"... How does the Web look? How could we tell an abnormal social network from a normal one? These and similar questions are important in many fields where the data can intuitively be cast as a graph; examples range from computer networks to sociology to biology and many more. Indeed, any M : N relation i ..."
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Cited by 70 (6 self)
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How does the Web look? How could we tell an abnormal social network from a normal one? These and similar questions are important in many fields where the data can intuitively be cast as a graph; examples range from computer networks to sociology to biology and many more. Indeed, any M : N relation in database terminology can be represented as a graph. A lot of these questions boil down to the following: "How can we generate synthetic but realistic graphs?" To answer this, we must first understand what patterns are common in realworld graphs and can thus be considered a mark of normality/realism. This survey give an overview of the incredible variety of work that has been done on these problems. One of our main contributions is the integration of points of view from physics, mathematics, sociology, and computer science. Further, we briefly describe recent advances on some related and interesting graph problems.
Kronecker Graphs: An Approach to Modeling Networks
 JOURNAL OF MACHINE LEARNING RESEARCH 11 (2010) 9851042
, 2010
"... How can we generate realistic networks? In addition, how can we do so with a mathematically tractable model that allows for rigorous analysis of network properties? Real networks exhibit a long list of surprising properties: Heavy tails for the in and outdegree distribution, heavy tails for the ei ..."
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Cited by 48 (2 self)
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How can we generate realistic networks? In addition, how can we do so with a mathematically tractable model that allows for rigorous analysis of network properties? Real networks exhibit a long list of surprising properties: Heavy tails for the in and outdegree distribution, heavy tails for the eigenvalues and eigenvectors, small diameters, and densification and shrinking diameters over time. Current network models and generators either fail to match several of the above properties, are complicated to analyze mathematically, or both. Here we propose a generative model for networks that is both mathematically tractable and can generate networks that have all the above mentioned structural properties. Our main idea here is to use a nonstandard matrix operation, the Kronecker product, to generate graphs which we refer to as “Kronecker graphs”. First, we show that Kronecker graphs naturally obey common network properties. In fact, we rigorously prove that they do so. We also provide empirical evidence showing that Kronecker graphs can effectively model the structure of real networks. We then present KRONFIT, a fast and scalable algorithm for fitting the Kronecker graph generation model to large real networks. A naive approach to fitting would take superexponential
Fast Counting of Triangles in Large Real Networks: Algorithms and Laws
"... How can we quickly find the number of triangles in a large graph, without actually counting them? Triangles are important for real world social networks, lying at the heart of the clustering coefficient and of the transitivity ratio. However, straightforward and even approximate counting algorithms ..."
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Cited by 36 (9 self)
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How can we quickly find the number of triangles in a large graph, without actually counting them? Triangles are important for real world social networks, lying at the heart of the clustering coefficient and of the transitivity ratio. However, straightforward and even approximate counting algorithms can be slow, trying to execute or approximate the equivalent of a 3way database join. In this paper, we provide two algorithms, the EigenTriangle for counting the total number of triangles in a graph, and the EigenTriangleLocal algorithm that gives the count of triangles that contain a desired node. Additional contributions include the following: (a) We show that both algorithms achieve excellent accuracy, with up to ≈ 1000x faster execution time, on several, real graphs and (b) we discover two new power laws ( DegreeTriangle and TriangleParticipation laws) with surprising properties. Figure 1. Speedup ratio versus accuracy for the Wikipedia web graph ( ≈ 3, 1M nodes, ≈ 37M edges). Proposed method achieves 1021x faster time, for 97.4 % accuracy, compared to a typical competitor, the Node Iterator method. 1
A Geometric Preferential Attachment Model of Networks
 In Algorithms and Models for the WebGraph: Third International Workshop, WAW 2004
, 2004
"... We study a random graph Gn that combines certain aspects of geometric random graphs and preferential attachment graphs. This model yields a graph with powerlaw degree distribution where the expansion property depends on a tunable parameter of the model. The vertices of Gn are n sequentially generat ..."
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Cited by 32 (2 self)
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We study a random graph Gn that combines certain aspects of geometric random graphs and preferential attachment graphs. This model yields a graph with powerlaw degree distribution where the expansion property depends on a tunable parameter of the model. The vertices of Gn are n sequentially generated points x1, x2,..., xn chosen uniformly at random from the unit sphere in R 3. After generating xt, we randomly connect it to m points from those points in x1, x2,..., xt−1. 1
Bipartite Graphs as Models of Complex Networks
 Aspects of Networking
, 2004
"... It appeared recently that the classical random graph model used to represent realworld complex networks does not capture their main properties. Since then, various attempts have been made to provide accurate models. We study here the first model which achieves the following challenges: it produces ..."
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Cited by 29 (4 self)
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It appeared recently that the classical random graph model used to represent realworld complex networks does not capture their main properties. Since then, various attempts have been made to provide accurate models. We study here the first model which achieves the following challenges: it produces graphs which have the three main wanted properties (clustering, degree distribution, average distance), it is based on some realworld observations, and it is sufficiently simple to make it possible to prove its main properties. This model consists in sampling a random bipartite graph with prescribed degree distribution. Indeed, we show that any complex network can be viewed as a bipartite graph with some specific characteristics, and that its main properties can be viewed as consequences of this underlying structure. We also propose a growing model based on this observation. Introduction.
Synthesizing Realistic Computational Grids
 IN PROCEEDINGS OF ACM/IEEE SUPERCOMPUTING 2003 (SC 2003
, 2003
"... Realistic workloads are essential in evaluating middleware for computational grids. One important component is the raw grid itself: a network topology graph annotated with the hardware and software available on each node and link. This paper defines our requirements for grid generation and presents ..."
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Cited by 21 (3 self)
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Realistic workloads are essential in evaluating middleware for computational grids. One important component is the raw grid itself: a network topology graph annotated with the hardware and software available on each node and link. This paper defines our requirements for grid generation and presents GridG, our extensible generator. We describe GridG in two steps: topology generation and annotation. For topology generation, we have both model and mechanism. We extend Tiers, an existing tool from the networking community, to produce graphs that obey recently discovered power laws of Internet topology. We also contribute to network topology theory by illustrating a contradiction between two laws and proposing a new version of one of them. For annotation, GridG captures intra and interhost correlations between attributes using conditional probability rules. We construct a set of rules, including one based on empirical evidence of OS concentration in subnets, that produce sensible host annotations.