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Equilogical Spaces
, 1998
"... It is well known that one can build models of full higherorder dependent type theory (also called the calculus of constructions) using partial equivalence relations (PERs) and assemblies over a partial combinatory algebra (PCA). But the idea of categories of PERs and ERs (total equivalence relation ..."
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Cited by 31 (12 self)
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It is well known that one can build models of full higherorder dependent type theory (also called the calculus of constructions) using partial equivalence relations (PERs) and assemblies over a partial combinatory algebra (PCA). But the idea of categories of PERs and ERs (total equivalence relations) can be applied to other structures as well. In particular, we can easily dene the category of ERs and equivalencepreserving continuous mappings over the standard category Top 0 of topological T 0 spaces; we call these spaces (a topological space together with an ER) equilogical spaces and the resulting category Equ. We show that this categoryin contradistinction to Top 0 is a cartesian closed category. The direct proof outlined here uses the equivalence of the category Equ to the category PEqu of PERs over algebraic lattices (a full subcategory of Top 0 that is well known to be cartesian closed from domain theory). In another paper with Carboni and Rosolini (cited herein) a more abstract categorical generalization shows why many such categories are cartesian closed. The category Equ obviously contains Top 0 as a full subcategory, and it naturally contains many other well known subcategories. In particular, we show why, as a consequence of work of Ershov, Berger, and others, the KleeneKreisel hierarchy of countable functionals of nite types can be naturally constructed in Equ from the natural numbers object N by repeated use in Equ of exponentiation and binary products. We also develop for Equ notions of modest sets (a category equivalent to Equ) and assemblies to explain why a model of dependent type theory is obtained. We make some comparisons of this model to other, known models. 1
Exact Completions and Toposes
 University of Edinburgh
, 2000
"... Toposes and quasitoposes have been shown to be useful in mathematics, logic and computer science. Because of this, it is important to understand the di#erent ways in which they can be constructed. Realizability toposes and presheaf toposes are two important classes of toposes. All of the former and ..."
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Cited by 13 (4 self)
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Toposes and quasitoposes have been shown to be useful in mathematics, logic and computer science. Because of this, it is important to understand the di#erent ways in which they can be constructed. Realizability toposes and presheaf toposes are two important classes of toposes. All of the former and many of the latter arise by adding "good " quotients of equivalence relations to a simple category with finite limits. This construction is called the exact completion of the original category. Exact completions are not always toposes and it was not known, not even in the realizability and presheaf cases, when or why toposes arise in this way. Exact completions can be obtained as the composition of two related constructions. The first one assigns to a category with finite limits, the "best " regular category (called its regular completion) that embeds it. The second assigns to
A Characterization Of The Left Exact Categories Whose Exact Completions Are Toposes
, 1999
"... We characterize the categories with finite limits whose exact completions are toposes. We review the examples in the literature and also find new examples and counterexamples. ..."
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Cited by 5 (2 self)
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We characterize the categories with finite limits whose exact completions are toposes. We review the examples in the literature and also find new examples and counterexamples.
Fundamentals of Object Oriented Database Modelling
, 1996
"... Solid theoretical foundations of object oriented databases (OODBs) are still missing. The work reported in this paper contains results on a formally founded object oriented datamodel (OODM) and is intended to contribute to the development of a uniform mathematical theory of OODBs. A clear distinctio ..."
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Cited by 2 (2 self)
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Solid theoretical foundations of object oriented databases (OODBs) are still missing. The work reported in this paper contains results on a formally founded object oriented datamodel (OODM) and is intended to contribute to the development of a uniform mathematical theory of OODBs. A clear distinction between objects and values turns out to be essential in the OODM. Types and classes are used to structure values and objects repectively. This can be founded on top of any underlying type system. We outline different approaches to type systems and their semantics and claim that OODB theory on top of arbitrary type systems leads to type theory with topostheoretically defined semantics. On this basis the known solutions to the problems of unique object identification and genericity can be generalized. It turns out that extents of classes must be completely representable by values. Such classes are called valuerepresentable. As a consequence object identifiers degenerate to a pure...
The Type Concept in OODB Modelling and its Logical Implications
, 2000
"... Conceptual modelling requires a solid mathematical theory of concepts concerning the collection of concepts used in a specific, but broad enough field. The field considered in this paper is database modelling. Here object orientation in the widest sense has been identified as a unifying conceptual u ..."
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Cited by 2 (2 self)
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Conceptual modelling requires a solid mathematical theory of concepts concerning the collection of concepts used in a specific, but broad enough field. The field considered in this paper is database modelling. Here object orientation in the widest sense has been identified as a unifying conceptual umbrella that encompasses all relevant datamodels. The theory of object oriented databases has brought to light the fundamental distinction between the concepts of objects and values and correspondingly types and classes. This can be founded on top of any underlying type system. Thus, expressiveness of a datamodel basically depends on the type concept, from which the other concepts can be derived. In order to achieve a uniform mathematical theory we outline different type systems and their semantics and claim that OODB theory on top of arbitrary type systems leads to type theory with topostheoretically defined semantics. On this basis the known solutions to the problems of unique ...
Closure Operators in Exact Completions
, 2001
"... In analogy with the relation between closure operators in presheaf toposes and Grothendieck topologies, we identify the structure in a category with finite limits that corresponds to universal closure operators in its regular and exact completions. The study of separated objects in exact completions ..."
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Cited by 2 (0 self)
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In analogy with the relation between closure operators in presheaf toposes and Grothendieck topologies, we identify the structure in a category with finite limits that corresponds to universal closure operators in its regular and exact completions. The study of separated objects in exact completions will then allow us to give conceptual proofs of local cartesian closure of di#erent categories of pseudo equivalence relations. Finally, we characterize when certain categories of sheaves are toposes. 1.
An Abstract Look At Realizability
, 2000
"... This paper is about purely categorical approaches to realizability, and contrasts with recent work particularly by Longley [14] and Lietz and Streicher [13], in which the basis is taken as a typed generalisation of a partial combinatory algebra. We, like they, will be interested in when the construc ..."
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This paper is about purely categorical approaches to realizability, and contrasts with recent work particularly by Longley [14] and Lietz and Streicher [13], in which the basis is taken as a typed generalisation of a partial combinatory algebra. We, like they, will be interested in when the construction yields a topos, and hence gives a full interpretation of higherorder logic. This is also a theme of Birkedal's work, see [1, 2], and his joint work in [3]. Birkedal makes considerable use of the construction we study. We present realizability toposes as the product of two constructions. First one takes a category (which corresponds to the typed partial combinatory algebra), and then one glues Set to it in a variant of the comma construction. This, as we shall see, has the eect of improving the categorical properties of the algebra category. Then one takes an exact completion of the result. This also has the eect of improving the categorical properties. Formally the main result of the paper is that the result is a topos just (modulo some technical conditions) when the original category has a universal object. Early work on realizability (e.g.[12, 22], or see [23]) is characterised by its largely syntactic nature. The core denition is when a sentence of some formal logic is realised, and the main interest is in when certain deductive principles (such as Markov's rule) are validated. Martin Hyland's invention y The authors wish to acknowledge the support of the EPSRC, EU Working Group 26142 APPSEM, and MURST 1 2 of realizability toposes [10] advances on this, not only in the simplicity of the construction, but by providing a semantic framework in which the formal logics can naturally be interpreted. Hyland was strongly motivated in his work by a then recent approach...