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468
Algebraic Algorithms for Sampling from Conditional Distributions
 Annals of Statistics
, 1995
"... We construct Markov chain algorithms for sampling from discrete exponential families conditional on a sufficient statistic. Examples include generating tables with fixed row and column sums and higher dimensional analogs. The algorithms involve finding bases for associated polynomial ideals and so a ..."
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Cited by 192 (16 self)
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We construct Markov chain algorithms for sampling from discrete exponential families conditional on a sufficient statistic. Examples include generating tables with fixed row and column sums and higher dimensional analogs. The algorithms involve finding bases for associated polynomial ideals and so an excursion into computational algebraic geometry.
Using confidence intervals in withinsubject designs
 Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
, 1994
"... Wolford, and two anonymous reviewers for very useful comments on earlier drafts of the manuscript. Correspondence may be addressed to ..."
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Cited by 178 (21 self)
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Wolford, and two anonymous reviewers for very useful comments on earlier drafts of the manuscript. Correspondence may be addressed to
The earth is round (p < .05
 American Psychologist
, 1994
"... After 4 decades of severe criticism, the ritual of null hypothesis significance testing—mechanical dichotomous decisions around a sacred.05 criterion—still persists. This article reviews the problems with this practice, including its nearuniversal misinterpretation ofp as the probability that Ho is ..."
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Cited by 113 (0 self)
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After 4 decades of severe criticism, the ritual of null hypothesis significance testing—mechanical dichotomous decisions around a sacred.05 criterion—still persists. This article reviews the problems with this practice, including its nearuniversal misinterpretation ofp as the probability that Ho is false, the misinterpretation that its complement is the probability of successful replication, and the mistaken assumption that if one rejects Ho one thereby affirms the theory that led to the test. Exploratory data analysis and the use of graphic methods, a steady improvement in and a movement toward standardization in measurement, an emphasis on estimating effect sizes using confidence intervals, and the informed use of available statistical methods is suggested. For generalization, psychologists must finally rely, as has been done in all the older sciences,
Modelling asymmetric exchange rate dependence
 International Economic Review
"... We test for asymmetry in a model of the dependence between the Deutsche mark and the yen, in the sense that a different degree of correlation is exhibited during joint appreciations against the U.S. dollar versus during joint depreciations. We consider an extension of the theory of copulas to allow ..."
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Cited by 103 (4 self)
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We test for asymmetry in a model of the dependence between the Deutsche mark and the yen, in the sense that a different degree of correlation is exhibited during joint appreciations against the U.S. dollar versus during joint depreciations. We consider an extension of the theory of copulas to allow for conditioning variables, and employ it to construct flexible models of the conditional dependence structure of these exchange rates. We find evidence that the mark–dollar and yen–dollar exchange rates are more correlated when they are depreciating against the dollar than when they are appreciating. 1.
Higher criticism for detecting sparse heterogeneous mixtures
 Ann. Statist
, 2004
"... Higher Criticism, or secondlevel significance testing, is a multiple comparisons concept mentioned in passing by Tukey (1976). It concerns a situation where there are many independent tests of significance and one is interested in rejecting the joint null hypothesis. Tukey suggested to compare the ..."
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Cited by 86 (15 self)
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Higher Criticism, or secondlevel significance testing, is a multiple comparisons concept mentioned in passing by Tukey (1976). It concerns a situation where there are many independent tests of significance and one is interested in rejecting the joint null hypothesis. Tukey suggested to compare the fraction of observed significances at a given αlevel to the expected fraction under the joint null, in fact he suggested to standardize the difference of the two quantities and form a zscore; the resulting zscore tests the significance of the body of significance tests. We consider a generalization, where we maximize this zscore over a range of significance levels 0 < α ≤ α0. We are able to show that the resulting Higher Criticism statistic is effective at resolving a very subtle testing problem: testing whether n normal means are all zero versus the alternative that a small fraction is nonzero. The subtlety of this ‘sparse normal means ’ testing problem can be seen from work of Ingster (1999) and Jin (2002), who studied such problems in great detail. In their studies, they identified an interesting range of cases where the small fraction of nonzero means is so
The benefits of being present: Mindfulness and its role in psychological wellbeing
 Journal of Personality & Social Psychology
, 2003
"... Mindfulness is an attribute of consciousness long believed to promote wellbeing. This research provides a theoretical and empirical examination of the role of mindfulness in psychological wellbeing. The development and psychometric properties of the dispositional Mindful Attention Awareness Scale ..."
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Cited by 83 (3 self)
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Mindfulness is an attribute of consciousness long believed to promote wellbeing. This research provides a theoretical and empirical examination of the role of mindfulness in psychological wellbeing. The development and psychometric properties of the dispositional Mindful Attention Awareness Scale (MAAS) are described. Correlational, quasiexperimental, and laboratory studies then show that the MAAS measures a unique quality of consciousness that is related to a variety of wellbeing constructs, that differentiates mindfulness practitioners from others, and that is associated with enhanced selfawareness. An experiencesampling study shows that both dispositional and state mindfulness predict selfregulated behavior and positive emotional states. Finally, a clinical intervention study with cancer patients demonstrates that increases in mindfulness over time relate to declines in mood disturbance and stress. Many philosophical, spiritual, and psychological traditions emphasize the importance of the quality of consciousness for the maintenance and enhancement of wellbeing (Wilber, 2000). Despite this, it is easy to overlook the importance of consciousness in human wellbeing because almost everyone exercises its primary
Dynamic Panel Estimation and Homogeneity Testing under CrossSection Dependence, Cowles Foundation Discussion Paper n.1362
, 2002
"... Least squares bias in autoregression and dynamic panel regression is shown to be exacerbated in case of cross section dependence. The bias is substantial and is shown to have serious effects in applications like HAC estimation and dynamic halflife response estimation. To address the bias problem, t ..."
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Cited by 75 (4 self)
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Least squares bias in autoregression and dynamic panel regression is shown to be exacerbated in case of cross section dependence. The bias is substantial and is shown to have serious effects in applications like HAC estimation and dynamic halflife response estimation. To address the bias problem, this paper develops a panel approach to median unbiased estimation that takes into account cross section dependence. The new estimators given here considerably reduce the effects of bias and gain precision from estimating cross section error correlation. The paper also develops an asymptotic theory for tests of coefficient homogeneity under cross section dependence, and proposes a modiÞed Hausman test to test for the presence of homogeneous unit roots. An orthogonalization procedure is developed to remove cross section dependence and permit the use of conventional and meta unit root tests with panel data. Some simulations investigating the Þnite sample performance of the estimation and test procedures are reported.
Theoretical Risks and Tabular Asterisks: Sir Karl and Sir Ronald and The Slow progress OF SOFT PSYCHOLOGY
 J CONSULTING AND CLINICAL PSYCHOLOGY
, 1978
"... Theories in “soft” areas of psychology lack the cumulative character of scientific knowledge. They tend neither to be refuted nor corroborated, but instead merely fade away as people lose interest. Even though intrinsic subject matter difficulties (20 listed) contribute to this, the excessive relian ..."
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Cited by 68 (3 self)
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Theories in “soft” areas of psychology lack the cumulative character of scientific knowledge. They tend neither to be refuted nor corroborated, but instead merely fade away as people lose interest. Even though intrinsic subject matter difficulties (20 listed) contribute to this, the excessive reliance on significance testing is partly responsible, being a poor way of doing science. Karl Popper’s approach, with modifications, would be prophylactic. Since the null hypothesis is quasialways false, tables summarizing research in terms of patterns of “significant differences” are little more than complex, causally uninterpretable outcomes of statistical power functions. Multiple paths to estimating numerical point values (“consistency tests”) are better, even if approximate with rough tolerances; and lacking this, ranges, orderings, secondorder differences, curve peaks and valleys, and function forms should be used. Such methods are usual in developed sciences that seldom report statistical significance. Consistency tests of a conjectural taxometric model yielded 94 % success with zero false negatives.
30 Years of Multidimensional Multivariate Visualization
, 1997
"... We present a survey of multidimensional multivariate (mdmv) visualization techniques developed during the last three decades. This subfield of scientific visualization deals with the analysis of data with multiple parameters or factors, and the key relationships among them. The course of developme ..."
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Cited by 65 (4 self)
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We present a survey of multidimensional multivariate (mdmv) visualization techniques developed during the last three decades. This subfield of scientific visualization deals with the analysis of data with multiple parameters or factors, and the key relationships among them. The course of development is roughly organized into four stages, within which major milestones are discussed. Recently developed techniques are explored with examples. 1 Introduction Multidimensional multivariate visualization is an important subfield of scientific visualization. It was studied separately by statisticians and psychologists long before computer science was deemed a discipline. The appearance of lowpriced personal computers and workstations during the 1980's breathed new life into graphical analysis of mdmv data. This research topic was among one of the shortterm goals included in the 1987 National Science Foundation (NSF) sponsored workshop on Visualization in Scientific Computing [MDB87]. Th...