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15
Extending Classical Logic with Inductive Definitions
, 2000
"... The goal of this paper is to extend classical logic with a generalized notion of inductive definition supporting positive and negative induction, to investigate the properties of this logic, its relationships to other logics in the area of nonmonotonic reasoning, logic programming and deductiv ..."
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Cited by 58 (38 self)
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The goal of this paper is to extend classical logic with a generalized notion of inductive definition supporting positive and negative induction, to investigate the properties of this logic, its relationships to other logics in the area of nonmonotonic reasoning, logic programming and deductive databases, and to show its application for knowledge representation by giving a typology of definitional knowledge.
Modelling General Recursion in Type Theory
 Mathematical Structures in Computer Science
, 2002
"... Constructive type theory is an expressive programming language where both algorithms and proofs can be represented. However, general recursive algorithms have no direct formalisation in type theory since they contain recursive calls that satisfy no syntactic condition guaranteeing termination. ..."
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Cited by 38 (6 self)
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Constructive type theory is an expressive programming language where both algorithms and proofs can be represented. However, general recursive algorithms have no direct formalisation in type theory since they contain recursive calls that satisfy no syntactic condition guaranteeing termination.
Logic programming revisited: logic programs as inductive definitions
 ACM Transactions on Computational Logic
, 2001
"... Logic programming has been introduced as programming in the Horn clause subset of first order logic. This view breaks down for the negation as failure inference rule. To overcome the problem, one line of research has been to view a logic program as a set of iffdefinitions. A second approach was to ..."
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Cited by 35 (21 self)
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Logic programming has been introduced as programming in the Horn clause subset of first order logic. This view breaks down for the negation as failure inference rule. To overcome the problem, one line of research has been to view a logic program as a set of iffdefinitions. A second approach was to identify a unique canonical, preferred or intended model among the models of the program and to appeal to common sense to validate the choice of such model. Another line of research developed the view of logic programming as a nonmonotonic reasoning formalism strongly related to Default Logic and Autoepistemic Logic. These competing approaches have resulted in some confusion about the declarative meaning of logic programming. This paper investigates the problem and proposes an alternative epistemological foundation for the canonical model approach, which is not based on common sense but on a solid mathematical information principle. The thesis is developed that logic programming can be understood as a natural and general logic of inductive definitions. In particular, logic programs with negation represent nonmonotone inductive definitions. It is argued that this thesis results in an alternative justification of the wellfounded model as the unique intended model of the logic program. In addition, it equips logic programs with an easy to comprehend meaning
A Logic of NonMonotone Inductive Definitions and its Modularity Properties
, 2004
"... Wellknown principles of induction include monotone induction and dierent sorts of nonmonotone induction such as inationary induction, induction over wellordered sets and iterated induction. In this work, we de ne a logic formalizing induction over wellordered sets and monotone and iterated ..."
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Cited by 29 (20 self)
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Wellknown principles of induction include monotone induction and dierent sorts of nonmonotone induction such as inationary induction, induction over wellordered sets and iterated induction. In this work, we de ne a logic formalizing induction over wellordered sets and monotone and iterated induction. Just as the principle of positive induction has been formalized in FO(LFP), and the principle of inationary induction has been formalized in FO(IFP), this paper formalizes the principle of iterated induction in a new logic for NonMonotone Inductive De nitions (NMIDlogic). The semantics of the logic is strongly inuenced by the wellfounded semantics of logic programming.
Nested General Recursion and Partiality in Type Theory
 Theorem Proving in Higher Order Logics: 14th International Conference, TPHOLs 2001, volume 2152 of Lecture Notes in Computer Science
, 2000
"... We extend Bove's technique for formalising simple general recursive algorithms in constructive type theory to nested recursive algorithms. The method consists in defining an inductive specialpurpose accessibility predicate, that characterises the inputs on which the algorithm terminates. As a resul ..."
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Cited by 24 (10 self)
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We extend Bove's technique for formalising simple general recursive algorithms in constructive type theory to nested recursive algorithms. The method consists in defining an inductive specialpurpose accessibility predicate, that characterises the inputs on which the algorithm terminates. As a result, the typetheoretic version of the algorithm can be defined by structural recursion on the proof that the input values satisfy this predicate. This technique results in definitions in which the computational and logical parts are clearly separated; hence, the typetheoretic version of the algorithm is given by its purely functional content, similarly to the corresponding program in a functional programming language. In the case of nested recursion, the special predicate and the typetheoretic algorithm must be defined simultaneously, because they depend on each other. This kind of definitions is not allowed in ordinary type theory, but it is provided in type theories extended wit...
Rewriting Logic as a Metalogical Framework
 Lecture Notes in Computer Science
, 2000
"... A metalogical framework is a logic with an associated methodology that is used to represent other logics and to reason about their metalogical properties. We propose that logical frameworks can be good metalogical frameworks when their logics support reective reasoning and their theories always ..."
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Cited by 16 (5 self)
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A metalogical framework is a logic with an associated methodology that is used to represent other logics and to reason about their metalogical properties. We propose that logical frameworks can be good metalogical frameworks when their logics support reective reasoning and their theories always have initial models. We present a concrete realization of this idea in rewriting logic. Theories in rewriting logic always have initial models and this logic supports reective reasoning. This implies that inductive reasoning is valid when proving properties about the initial models of theories in rewriting logic, and that we can use reection to reason at the metalevel about these properties. In fact, we can uniformly reect induction principles for proving metatheorems about rewriting logic theories and their parameterized extensions. We show that this reective methodology provides an eective framework for dierent, nontrivial, kinds of formal metatheoretic reasoning; one can...
Existential Least FixedPoint Logic and its Relatives
 Journal of Logic and Computation
, 1997
"... The main objects of our interest are the existential fragment 9LFP of least xed{point logic, stratied xed point logic SFP, which is the smallest regular logic containing 9LFP, and transitive closure logic TC. The main result of the rst part of this paper is a normal form for 9LFP, which transfers to ..."
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Cited by 7 (0 self)
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The main objects of our interest are the existential fragment 9LFP of least xed{point logic, stratied xed point logic SFP, which is the smallest regular logic containing 9LFP, and transitive closure logic TC. The main result of the rst part of this paper is a normal form for 9LFP, which transfers to SFP to a certain extent. We study some of the consequences of this normal form and show that TC can be seen as a natural fragment of SFP. The second part of the paper is concerned with separating the logics under consideration. Furthermore, it shows that the existential preservation theorem fails for TC and SFP (both on nite and arbitrary structures) . The method used to show this also yields a negative answer to a question posed by Rosen and Weinstein [RW95] concerning rst{order sentences preserved under extensions of nite structures. 1 Introduction Inductive denitions by positive existential formulae have rst been studied in generalized recursion theory (see e.g. [Acz77]). Chand...
A Comparison of Formalizations of the MetaTheory of a Language with Variable Bindings in Isabelle
 Supplemental Proceedings of the 14th International Conference on Theorem Proving in Higher Order Logics
, 2001
"... Abstract. Theorem provers can be used to reason formally about programming languages and there are various general methods for the formalization of variable binding operators. Hence there are choices for the style of formalization of such languages, even within a single theorem prover. The choice of ..."
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Cited by 5 (2 self)
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Abstract. Theorem provers can be used to reason formally about programming languages and there are various general methods for the formalization of variable binding operators. Hence there are choices for the style of formalization of such languages, even within a single theorem prover. The choice of formalization can affect how easy or difficult it is to do automated reasoning. The aim of this paper is to compare and contrast three formalizations (termed de Bruijn, weak HOAS and full HOAS) of a typical functional programming language. Our contribution is a detailed report on our formalizations, a survey of related work, and a final comparative summary, in which we mention a novel approach to a hybrid de Bruijn/HOAS syntax. 1
Natural Semantics for NonDeterminism
, 1993
"... We present a natural semantics for the untyped lazy calculus plus McCarthy's amb, a nondeterministic choice operator. The natural semantics includes rules for both convergent behaviour (dened inductively) and divergent behaviour (dened coinductively). This semantics is equivalent to a small ste ..."
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Cited by 2 (0 self)
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We present a natural semantics for the untyped lazy calculus plus McCarthy's amb, a nondeterministic choice operator. The natural semantics includes rules for both convergent behaviour (dened inductively) and divergent behaviour (dened coinductively). This semantics is equivalent to a small step reduction semantics that corresponds closely to our operational intuitions about McCarthy's amb. We present equivalences for convergent and divergent behaviour based on the natural semantics and prove a Context Lemma for the convergence equivalence. We then give a theory l 8 , based on the equivalences for convergent and divergent behaviour. Since it is able to distinguish between programs that dier only in their divergent behaviour, the theory is more discriminating than equational theories based on current domaintheoretic models. It is therefore more suitable for reasoning about functional programs containing McCarthy's amb. Contents 1 Introduction 2 2 Related Work 3 3 ...
Guarded Quantification in Least Fixed Point Logic
, 2002
"... We develop a variant of Least Fixed Point logic based on First Order logic with a relaxed version of guarded quantification. We develop a Game Theoretic Semantics of this logic, and find that under reasonable conditions, guarding quantification does not reduce the expressibility of Least Fixed Point ..."
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Cited by 2 (1 self)
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We develop a variant of Least Fixed Point logic based on First Order logic with a relaxed version of guarded quantification. We develop a Game Theoretic Semantics of this logic, and find that under reasonable conditions, guarding quantification does not reduce the expressibility of Least Fixed Point logic. But guarding quantification increases worstcase time complexity.