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591
Latent dirichlet allocation
 Journal of Machine Learning Research
, 2003
"... We describe latent Dirichlet allocation (LDA), a generative probabilistic model for collections of discrete data such as text corpora. LDA is a threelevel hierarchical Bayesian model, in which each item of a collection is modeled as a finite mixture over an underlying set of topics. Each topic is, ..."
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Cited by 2350 (63 self)
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We describe latent Dirichlet allocation (LDA), a generative probabilistic model for collections of discrete data such as text corpora. LDA is a threelevel hierarchical Bayesian model, in which each item of a collection is modeled as a finite mixture over an underlying set of topics. Each topic is, in turn, modeled as an infinite mixture over an underlying set of topic probabilities. In the context of text modeling, the topic probabilities provide an explicit representation of a document. We present efficient approximate inference techniques based on variational methods and an EM algorithm for empirical Bayes parameter estimation. We report results in document modeling, text classification, and collaborative filtering, comparing to a mixture of unigrams model and the probabilistic LSI model. 1.
Statistical pattern recognition: A review
 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON PATTERN ANALYSIS AND MACHINE INTELLIGENCE
, 2000
"... The primary goal of pattern recognition is supervised or unsupervised classification. Among the various frameworks in which pattern recognition has been traditionally formulated, the statistical approach has been most intensively studied and used in practice. More recently, neural network techniques ..."
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Cited by 657 (22 self)
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The primary goal of pattern recognition is supervised or unsupervised classification. Among the various frameworks in which pattern recognition has been traditionally formulated, the statistical approach has been most intensively studied and used in practice. More recently, neural network techniques and methods imported from statistical learning theory have bean receiving increasing attention. The design of a recognition system requires careful attention to the following issues: definition of pattern classes, sensing environment, pattern representation, feature extraction and selection, cluster analysis, classifier design and learning, selection of training and test samples, and performance evaluation. In spite of almost 50 years of research and development in this field, the general problem of recognizing complex patterns with arbitrary orientation, location, and scale remains unsolved. New and emerging applications, such as data mining, web searching, retrieval of multimedia data, face recognition, and cursive handwriting recognition, require robust and efficient pattern recognition techniques. The objective of this review paper is to summarize and compare some of the wellknown methods used in various stages of a pattern recognition system and identify research topics and applications which are at the forefront of this exciting and challenging field.
Statistical phrasebased translation
, 2003
"... We propose a new phrasebased translation model and decoding algorithm that enables us to evaluate and compare several, previously proposed phrasebased translation models. Within our framework, we carry out a large number of experiments to understand better and explain why phrasebased models outpe ..."
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Cited by 633 (7 self)
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We propose a new phrasebased translation model and decoding algorithm that enables us to evaluate and compare several, previously proposed phrasebased translation models. Within our framework, we carry out a large number of experiments to understand better and explain why phrasebased models outperform wordbased models. Our empirical results, which hold for all examined language pairs, suggest that the highest levels of performance can be obtained through relatively simple means: heuristic learning of phrase translations from wordbased alignments and lexical weighting of phrase translations. Surprisingly, learning phrases longer than three words and learning phrases from highaccuracy wordlevel alignment models does not have a strong impact on performance. Learning only syntactically motivated phrases degrades the performance of our systems. 1
Dynamic Bayesian Networks: Representation, Inference and Learning
, 2002
"... Modelling sequential data is important in many areas of science and engineering. Hidden Markov models (HMMs) and Kalman filter models (KFMs) are popular for this because they are simple and flexible. For example, HMMs have been used for speech recognition and biosequence analysis, and KFMs have bee ..."
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Cited by 564 (3 self)
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Modelling sequential data is important in many areas of science and engineering. Hidden Markov models (HMMs) and Kalman filter models (KFMs) are popular for this because they are simple and flexible. For example, HMMs have been used for speech recognition and biosequence analysis, and KFMs have been used for problems ranging from tracking planes and missiles to predicting the economy. However, HMMs
and KFMs are limited in their “expressive power”. Dynamic Bayesian Networks (DBNs) generalize HMMs by allowing the state space to be represented in factored form, instead of as a single discrete random variable. DBNs generalize KFMs by allowing arbitrary probability distributions, not just (unimodal) linearGaussian. In this thesis, I will discuss how to represent many different kinds of models as DBNs, how to perform exact and approximate inference in DBNs, and how to learn DBN models from sequential data.
In particular, the main novel technical contributions of this thesis are as follows: a way of representing
Hierarchical HMMs as DBNs, which enables inference to be done in O(T) time instead of O(T 3), where T is the length of the sequence; an exact smoothing algorithm that takes O(log T) space instead of O(T); a simple way of using the junction tree algorithm for online inference in DBNs; new complexity bounds on exact online inference in DBNs; a new deterministic approximate inference algorithm called factored frontier; an analysis of the relationship between the BK algorithm and loopy belief propagation; a way of
applying RaoBlackwellised particle filtering to DBNs in general, and the SLAM (simultaneous localization
and mapping) problem in particular; a way of extending the structural EM algorithm to DBNs; and a variety of different applications of DBNs. However, perhaps the main value of the thesis is its catholic presentation of the field of sequential data modelling.
Recognition of visual activities and interactions by stochastic parsing
 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON PATTERN ANALYSIS AND MACHINE INTELLIGENCE
, 2000
"... This paper describes a probabilistic syntactic approach to the detection and recognition of temporally extended activities and interactions between multiple agents. The fundamental idea is to divide the recognition problem into two levels. The lower level detections are performed using standard inde ..."
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Cited by 236 (5 self)
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This paper describes a probabilistic syntactic approach to the detection and recognition of temporally extended activities and interactions between multiple agents. The fundamental idea is to divide the recognition problem into two levels. The lower level detections are performed using standard independent probabilistic event detectors to propose candidate detections of lowlevel features. The outputs of these detectors provide the input stream for a stochastic contextfree grammar parsing mechanism. The grammar and parser provide longer range temporal constraints, disambiguate uncertain lowlevel detections, and allow the inclusion of a priori knowledge about the structure of temporal events in a given domain. To achieve such a system we: 1) provide techniques for generating a discrete symbol stream from continuous lowlevel detectors; 2) extend stochastic contextfree parsing to handle uncertainty in the input symbol stream; 3) augment a runtime parsing algorithm to enforce intersymbol constraints such as requiring temporal consistency between primitives; and 4) extend the consistency filtering to maintain consistent multiobject interactions. We develop a realtime system and demonstrate the approach in several experiments on gesture recognition and in video surveillance. In the surveillance application, we show how the system correctly interprets activities of multiple, interacting objects.
Hidden Markov processes
 IEEE Trans. Inform. Theory
, 2002
"... Abstract—An overview of statistical and informationtheoretic aspects of hidden Markov processes (HMPs) is presented. An HMP is a discretetime finitestate homogeneous Markov chain observed through a discretetime memoryless invariant channel. In recent years, the work of Baum and Petrie on finite ..."
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Cited by 170 (3 self)
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Abstract—An overview of statistical and informationtheoretic aspects of hidden Markov processes (HMPs) is presented. An HMP is a discretetime finitestate homogeneous Markov chain observed through a discretetime memoryless invariant channel. In recent years, the work of Baum and Petrie on finitestate finitealphabet HMPs was expanded to HMPs with finite as well as continuous state spaces and a general alphabet. In particular, statistical properties and ergodic theorems for relative entropy densities of HMPs were developed. Consistency and asymptotic normality of the maximumlikelihood (ML) parameter estimator were proved under some mild conditions. Similar results were established for switching autoregressive processes. These processes generalize HMPs. New algorithms were developed for estimating the state, parameter, and order of an HMP, for universal coding and classification of HMPs, and for universal decoding of hidden Markov channels. These and other related topics are reviewed in this paper. Index Terms—Baum–Petrie algorithm, entropy ergodic theorems, finitestate channels, hidden Markov models, identifiability, Kalman filter, maximumlikelihood (ML) estimation, order estimation, recursive parameter estimation, switching autoregressive processes, Ziv inequality. I.
Estimators for Stochastic "UnificationBased" Grammars*
, 1999
"... Loglinear models provide a statistically sound framework for Stochastic "UnificationBased" Grammars (SUBGs) and stochastic versions of other kinds of grammars. We describe two computationallytractable ways of estimating the parameters of such grammars from a training corpus of syntactic analy ..."
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Cited by 148 (21 self)
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Loglinear models provide a statistically sound framework for Stochastic "UnificationBased" Grammars (SUBGs) and stochastic versions of other kinds of grammars. We describe two computationallytractable ways of estimating the parameters of such grammars from a training corpus of syntactic analyses, and apply these to estimate a stochastic version of LexicalFunctional Grammar.
Two decades of statistical language modeling: Where do we go from here
 Proceedings of the IEEE
, 2000
"... Statistical Language Models estimate the distribution of various natural language phenomena for the purpose of speech recognition and other language technologies. Since the first significant model was proposed in 1980, many attempts have been made to improve the state of the art. We review them here ..."
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Cited by 147 (1 self)
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Statistical Language Models estimate the distribution of various natural language phenomena for the purpose of speech recognition and other language technologies. Since the first significant model was proposed in 1980, many attempts have been made to improve the state of the art. We review them here, point to a few promising directions, and argue for a Bayesian approach to integration of linguistic theories with data. 1. OUTLINE Statistical language modeling (SLM) is the attempt to capture regularities of natural language for the purpose of improving the performance of various natural language applications. By and large, statistical language modeling amounts to estimating the probability distribution of various linguistic units, such as words, sentences, and whole documents. Statistical language modeling is crucial for a large variety of language technology applications. These include speech recognition (where SLM got its start), machine translation, document classification and routing, optical character recognition, information retrieval, handwriting recognition, spelling correction, and many more. In machine translation, for example, purely statistical approaches have been introduced in [1]. But even researchers using rulebased approaches have found it beneficial to introduce some elements of SLM and statistical estimation [2]. In information retrieval, a language modeling approach was recently proposed by [3], and a statistical/information theoretical approach was developed by [4]. SLM employs statistical estimation techniques using language training data, that is, text. Because of the categorical nature of language, and the large vocabularies people naturally use, statistical techniques must estimate a large number of parameters, and consequently depend critically on the availability of large amounts of training data.
Kernel Methods for Relation Extraction
, 2002
"... We present an application of kernel methods to extracting relations from unstructured natural language sources. ..."
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Cited by 146 (0 self)
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We present an application of kernel methods to extracting relations from unstructured natural language sources.
Summarization beyond sentence extraction: A probabilistic approach to sentence compression
, 2002
"... When humans produce summaries of documents, they do not simply extract sentences and concatenate them. Rather, they create new sentences that are grammatical, that cohere with one another, and that capture the most salient pieces of information in the original document. Given that large collections ..."
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Cited by 144 (11 self)
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When humans produce summaries of documents, they do not simply extract sentences and concatenate them. Rather, they create new sentences that are grammatical, that cohere with one another, and that capture the most salient pieces of information in the original document. Given that large collections of text/abstract pairs are available online, it is now possible to envision algorithms that are trained to mimic this process. In this paper, we focus on sentence compression, a simpler version of this larger challenge. We aim to achieve two goals simultaneously: our compressions should be grammatical, and they should retain the most important pieces of information. These two goals can conflict. We devise both a noisychannel and a decisiontree approach to the problem, and we evaluate results against manual compressions and a simple baseline. 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.