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137
Regularization Theory and Neural Networks Architectures
 Neural Computation
, 1995
"... We had previously shown that regularization principles lead to approximation schemes which are equivalent to networks with one layer of hidden units, called Regularization Networks. In particular, standard smoothness functionals lead to a subclass of regularization networks, the well known Radial Ba ..."
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Cited by 309 (31 self)
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We had previously shown that regularization principles lead to approximation schemes which are equivalent to networks with one layer of hidden units, called Regularization Networks. In particular, standard smoothness functionals lead to a subclass of regularization networks, the well known Radial Basis Functions approximation schemes. This paper shows that regularization networks encompass a much broader range of approximation schemes, including many of the popular general additive models and some of the neural networks. In particular, we introduce new classes of smoothness functionals that lead to different classes of basis functions. Additive splines as well as some tensor product splines can be obtained from appropriate classes of smoothness functionals. Furthermore, the same generalization that extends Radial Basis Functions (RBF) to Hyper Basis Functions (HBF) also leads from additive models to ridge approximation models, containing as special cases Breiman's hinge functions, som...
Regularization networks and support vector machines
 Advances in Computational Mathematics
, 2000
"... Regularization Networks and Support Vector Machines are techniques for solving certain problems of learning from examples – in particular the regression problem of approximating a multivariate function from sparse data. Radial Basis Functions, for example, are a special case of both regularization a ..."
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Cited by 266 (33 self)
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Regularization Networks and Support Vector Machines are techniques for solving certain problems of learning from examples – in particular the regression problem of approximating a multivariate function from sparse data. Radial Basis Functions, for example, are a special case of both regularization and Support Vector Machines. We review both formulations in the context of Vapnik’s theory of statistical learning which provides a general foundation for the learning problem, combining functional analysis and statistics. The emphasis is on regression: classification is treated as a special case.
Splines: A Perfect Fit for Signal/Image Processing
 IEEE SIGNAL PROCESSING MAGAZINE
, 1999
"... ..."
Sampling—50 years after Shannon
 Proceedings of the IEEE
, 2000
"... This paper presents an account of the current state of sampling, 50 years after Shannon’s formulation of the sampling theorem. The emphasis is on regular sampling, where the grid is uniform. This topic has benefited from a strong research revival during the past few years, thanks in part to the math ..."
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Cited by 207 (22 self)
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This paper presents an account of the current state of sampling, 50 years after Shannon’s formulation of the sampling theorem. The emphasis is on regular sampling, where the grid is uniform. This topic has benefited from a strong research revival during the past few years, thanks in part to the mathematical connections that were made with wavelet theory. To introduce the reader to the modern, Hilbertspace formulation, we reinterpret Shannon’s sampling procedure as an orthogonal projection onto the subspace of bandlimited functions. We then extend the standard sampling paradigm for a representation of functions in the more general class of “shiftinvariant” functions spaces, including splines and wavelets. Practically, this allows for simpler—and possibly more realistic—interpolation models, which can be used in conjunction with a much wider class of (antialiasing) prefilters that are not necessarily ideal lowpass. We summarize and discuss the results available for the determination of the approximation error and of the sampling rate when the input of the system is essentially arbitrary; e.g., nonbandlimited. We also review variations of sampling that can be understood from the same unifying perspective. These include wavelets, multiwavelets, Papoulis generalized sampling, finite elements, and frames. Irregular sampling and radial basis functions are briefly mentioned. Keywords—Bandlimited functions, Hilbert spaces, interpolation, least squares approximation, projection operators, sampling,
An equivalence between sparse approximation and Support Vector Machines
 A.I. Memo 1606, MIT Arti cial Intelligence Laboratory
, 1997
"... This publication can be retrieved by anonymous ftp to publications.ai.mit.edu. The pathname for this publication is: aipublications/15001999/AIM1606.ps.Z This paper shows a relationship between two di erent approximation techniques: the Support Vector Machines (SVM), proposed by V.Vapnik (1995), ..."
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Cited by 205 (7 self)
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This publication can be retrieved by anonymous ftp to publications.ai.mit.edu. The pathname for this publication is: aipublications/15001999/AIM1606.ps.Z This paper shows a relationship between two di erent approximation techniques: the Support Vector Machines (SVM), proposed by V.Vapnik (1995), and a sparse approximation scheme that resembles the Basis Pursuit DeNoising algorithm (Chen, 1995 � Chen, Donoho and Saunders, 1995). SVM is a technique which can be derived from the Structural Risk Minimization Principle (Vapnik, 1982) and can be used to estimate the parameters of several di erent approximation schemes, including Radial Basis Functions, algebraic/trigonometric polynomials, Bsplines, and some forms of Multilayer Perceptrons. Basis Pursuit DeNoising is a sparse approximation technique, in which a function is reconstructed by using a small number of basis functions chosen from a large set (the dictionary). We show that, if the data are noiseless, the modi ed version of Basis Pursuit DeNoising proposed in this paper is equivalent to SVM in the following sense: if applied to the same data set the two techniques give the same solution, which is obtained by solving the same quadratic programming problem. In the appendix we also present a derivation of the SVM technique in the framework of regularization theory, rather than statistical learning theory, establishing a connection between SVM, sparse approximation and regularization theory.
Approximation From ShiftInvariant Subspaces of ...
 Trans. Amer. Math. Soc
, 1991
"... : A complete characterization is given of closed shiftinvariant subspaces of L 2 (IR d ) which provide a specified approximation order. When such a space is principal (i.e., generated by a single function), then this characterization is in terms of the Fourier transform of the generator. As a spe ..."
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Cited by 130 (38 self)
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: A complete characterization is given of closed shiftinvariant subspaces of L 2 (IR d ) which provide a specified approximation order. When such a space is principal (i.e., generated by a single function), then this characterization is in terms of the Fourier transform of the generator. As a special case, we obtain the classical StrangFix conditions, but without requiring the generating function to decay at infinity. The approximation order of a general closed shiftinvariant space is shown to be already realized by a specifiable principal subspace. AMS (MOS) Subject Classifications: 41A25, 41A63; 41A30, 41A15, 42B99, 46E30 Key Words and phrases: approximation order, StrangFix conditions, shiftinvariant spaces, radial basis functions, orthogonal projection. Authors' affiliation and address: 1 Center for Mathematical Sciences University of WisconsinMadison 610 Walnut St. Madison WI 53705 and 2 Department of Mathematics University of South Carolina Columbia SC 29208 This work...
The mathematics of learning: Dealing with data
 Notices of the American Mathematical Society
, 2003
"... Draft for the Notices of the AMS Learning is key to developing systems tailored to a broad range of data analysis and information extraction tasks. We outline the mathematical foundations of learning theory and describe a key algorithm of it. 1 ..."
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Cited by 103 (15 self)
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Draft for the Notices of the AMS Learning is key to developing systems tailored to a broad range of data analysis and information extraction tasks. We outline the mathematical foundations of learning theory and describe a key algorithm of it. 1
Priors, Stabilizers and Basis Functions: from regularization to radial, tensor and additive splines
, 1993
"... We had previously shown that regularization principles lead to approximation schemes which are equivalent to networks with one layer of hidden units, called Regularization Networks. In particular we had discussed how standard smoothness functionals lead to a subclass of regularization networks, th ..."
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Cited by 79 (14 self)
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We had previously shown that regularization principles lead to approximation schemes which are equivalent to networks with one layer of hidden units, called Regularization Networks. In particular we had discussed how standard smoothness functionals lead to a subclass of regularization networks, the wellknown Radial Basis Functions approximation schemes. In this paper weshow that regularization networks encompass amuch broader range of approximation schemes, including many of the popular general additivemodels and some of the neural networks. In particular weintroduce new classes of smoothness functionals that lead to different classes of basis functions. Additive splines as well as some tensor product splines can be obtained from appropriate classes of smoothness functionals. Furthermore, the same extension that leads from Radial Basis Functions (RBF) to Hyper Basis Functions (HBF) also leads from additivemodels to ridge approximation models, containing as special cases Breiman's hinge functions and some forms of Projection Pursuit Regression. We propose to use the term GeneralizedRegularization Networks for this broad class of approximation schemes that follow from an extension of regularization. In the probabilistic interpretation of regularization, the different classes of basis functions correspond to different classes of prior probabilities on the approximating function spaces, and therefore to differenttypes of smoothness assumptions. In the final part of the paper, weshow the relation between activation functions of the Gaussian and sigmoidal type by considering the simple case of the kernel G(x)=x. In summary,
Surface Interpolation With Radial Basis Functions for Medical Imaging
 IEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging
, 1997
"... Radial basis functions are presented as a practical solution to the problem of interpolating incomplete surfaces derived from threedimensional (3D) medical graphics. The specific application considered is the design of cranial implants for the repair of defects, usually holes, in the skull. Radial ..."
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Cited by 64 (2 self)
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Radial basis functions are presented as a practical solution to the problem of interpolating incomplete surfaces derived from threedimensional (3D) medical graphics. The specific application considered is the design of cranial implants for the repair of defects, usually holes, in the skull. Radial basis functions impose few restrictions on the geometry of the interpolation centers and are suited to problems where the interpolation centers do not form a regular grid. However, their high computational requirements have previously limited their use to problems where the number of interpolation centers is small (! 300). Recently developed fast evaluation techniques have overcome these limitations and made radial basis interpolation a practical approach for larger data sets. In this paper radial basis functions are fitted to depthmaps of the skull's surface, obtained from Xray CT data using raytracing techniques. They are used to smoothly interpolate the surface of the skull across defe...
Multistep scattered data interpolation using compactly supported radial basis functions
 J. Comp. Appl. Math
, 1996
"... Abstract. A hierarchical scheme is presented for smoothly interpolating scattered data with radial basis functions of compact support. A nested sequence of subsets of the data is computed efficiently using successive Delaunay triangulations. The scale of the basis function at each level is determine ..."
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Cited by 64 (12 self)
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Abstract. A hierarchical scheme is presented for smoothly interpolating scattered data with radial basis functions of compact support. A nested sequence of subsets of the data is computed efficiently using successive Delaunay triangulations. The scale of the basis function at each level is determined from the current density of the points using information from the triangulation. The method is rotationally invariant and has good reproduction properties. Moreover the solution can be calculated and evaluated in acceptable computing time. During the last two decades radial basis functions have become a well established tool for multivariate interpolation of both scattered and gridded data; see [2,7,8,22,25] for some surveys. The major part