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18
Interactive Global Illumination using Fast Ray Tracing
, 2002
"... Rasterization hardware provides interactive frame rates for rendering dynamic scenes, but lacks the ability of ray tracing required for efficient global illumination simulation. Existing ray tracing based methods yield high quality renderings but are far too slow for interactive use. We present a ..."
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Cited by 110 (19 self)
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Rasterization hardware provides interactive frame rates for rendering dynamic scenes, but lacks the ability of ray tracing required for efficient global illumination simulation. Existing ray tracing based methods yield high quality renderings but are far too slow for interactive use. We present a new parallel global illumination algorithm that perfectly scales, has minimal preprocessing and communication overhead, applies highly efficient sampling techniques based on randomized quasiMonte Carlo integration, and benefits from a fast parallel ray tracing implementation by shooting coherent groups of rays. Thus a performance is achieved that allows for applying arbitrary changes to the scene, while simulating global illumination including shadows from area light sources, indirect illumination, specular effects, and caustics at interactive frame rates. Ceasing interaction rapidly provides high quality renderings.
Instant Ray Tracing: The Bounding Interval Hierarchy
 IN RENDERING TECHNIQUES 2006 – PROCEEDINGS OF THE 17TH EUROGRAPHICS SYMPOSIUM ON RENDERING
, 2006
"... We introduce a new ray tracing algorithm that exploits the best of previous methods: Similar to bounding volume hierarchies the memory of the acceleration data structure is linear in the number of objects to be ray traced and can be predicted prior to construction, while the traversal of the hiera ..."
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Cited by 44 (1 self)
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We introduce a new ray tracing algorithm that exploits the best of previous methods: Similar to bounding volume hierarchies the memory of the acceleration data structure is linear in the number of objects to be ray traced and can be predicted prior to construction, while the traversal of the hierarchy is as efficient as the one of kdtrees. The construction algorithm can be considered a variant of quicksort and for the first time is based on a global space partitioning heuristic, which is much cheaper to evaluate than the classic surface area heuristic. Compared to spatial partitioning schemes only a fraction of the memory is used and a higher numerical precision is intrinsic. The new method is simple to implement and its high performance is demonstrated by extensive measurements including massive as well as dynamic scenes, where we focus on the total time to image including the construction cost rather than on only frames per second.
Efficient Importance Sampling Techniques for the Photon Map
, 2000
"... In global illumination computations the photon map is a powerful tool for approximating the irradiance, which is stored independent from scene geometry. By presenting a new algorithm, which uses novel importance sampling techniques, we improve the memory footprint of the photon map, simplify the cau ..."
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Cited by 18 (4 self)
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In global illumination computations the photon map is a powerful tool for approximating the irradiance, which is stored independent from scene geometry. By presenting a new algorithm, which uses novel importance sampling techniques, we improve the memory footprint of the photon map, simplify the caustic generation, and allow for a much faster sampling of direct illumination in complicated models as they arise in a production environment.
Efficient Bidirectional Path Tracing by Randomized QuasiMonte Carlo Integration
 AND QUASIMONTE CARLO METHODS 2000
, 2002
"... As opposed to Monte Carlo integration the quasiMonte Carlo method does not allow for an error estimate from the samples used for the integral approximation and the deterministic error bound is not accessible in the setting of computer graphics, since usually the integrands are of unbounded variatio ..."
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Cited by 8 (4 self)
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As opposed to Monte Carlo integration the quasiMonte Carlo method does not allow for an error estimate from the samples used for the integral approximation and the deterministic error bound is not accessible in the setting of computer graphics, since usually the integrands are of unbounded variation. We investigate the application of randomized quasiMonte Carlo integration to bidirectional path tracing yielding much more efficient algorithms that exploit lowdiscrepancy sampling and at the same time allow for variance estimation.
On Filtering the Noise from the Random Parameters in Monte Carlo Rendering
"... Monte Carlo (MC) rendering systems can produce spectacular images but are plagued with noise at low sampling rates. In this work, we observe that this noise occurs in regions of the image where the sample values are a direct function of the random parameters used in the Monte Carlo system. Therefore ..."
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Cited by 8 (0 self)
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Monte Carlo (MC) rendering systems can produce spectacular images but are plagued with noise at low sampling rates. In this work, we observe that this noise occurs in regions of the image where the sample values are a direct function of the random parameters used in the Monte Carlo system. Therefore, we propose a way to identify MC noise by estimating this functional relationship from a small number of input samples. To do this, we treat the rendering system as a black box and calculate the statistical dependency between the outputs and inputs of the system. We then use this information to reduce the importance of the sample values affected by MC noise when applying an imagespace, crossbilateral filter, which removes only the noise caused by the random parameters but preserves important scene detail. The process of using the functional relationships between sample values and the random parameter inputs to filter MC noise is called random parameter filtering (RPF), and we demonstrate that it can produce images in a few minutes that are comparable to those rendered with a thousand times more samples. Furthermore, our algorithm is general because we do not assign any physical meaning to the random parameters, so it works for a wide range of Monte Carlo effects, including depth of field, area light sources, motion blur, and pathtracing. We present results for still images and animated sequences at low sampling rates that have higher quality than those produced with previous approaches.
Adjoints and importance in rendering: An overview
 IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics
, 2003
"... Abstract—This survey gives an overview of the use of importance, an adjoint of light, in speeding up rendering. The importance of a light distribution indicates its contribution to the region of most interest—typically the directly visible parts of a scene. Importance can therefore be used to concen ..."
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Cited by 7 (2 self)
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Abstract—This survey gives an overview of the use of importance, an adjoint of light, in speeding up rendering. The importance of a light distribution indicates its contribution to the region of most interest—typically the directly visible parts of a scene. Importance can therefore be used to concentrate global illumination and ray tracing calculations where they matter most for image accuracy, while reducing computations in areas of the scene that do not significantly influence the image. In this paper, we attempt to clarify the various uses of adjoints and importance in rendering by unifying them into a single framework. While doing so, we also generalize some theoretical results—known from discrete representations—to a continuous domain.
Photorealistic Image Synthesis Using RayBundles
, 2000
"... lightsources, such as point or directional lightsources are preferred here, since their radiance is a Diracdelta like function, which simplifies the integral of equation (2.50) to a sum. These methods take into account only a single reflection of the light coming from the abstract lightsources. Ide ..."
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Cited by 6 (4 self)
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lightsources, such as point or directional lightsources are preferred here, since their radiance is a Diracdelta like function, which simplifies the integral of equation (2.50) to a sum. These methods take into account only a single reflection of the light coming from the abstract lightsources. Ideal mirrors and refracting objects cannot be rendered with these methods. 2. Recursive raytracing Another alternative is to eliminate from the rendering equation those energy contributions which cause the difficulties, and thus give ourselves a simpler problem to solve. For example, if limited level, say n, coupling caused by ideal reflection and refraction were allowed, and we were to ignore the other nonideal components coming from nonabstract lightsources, then the number of surface points which would need to be evaluated to calculate a pixel color can be kept under control. Since the illumination formula contains two terms regarding the coherent components (reflective and refracting l...
Strictly Deterministic Sampling Methods in Computer Graphics
 SIGGRAPH 2003 Course Notes, Course #44: Monte Carlo Ray Tracing
, 2003
"... We introduce a strictly deterministic, meaning nonrandom, rendering method, which performs superior to state of the art Monte Carlo techniques. Its simple and elegant implementation on parallel computer architectures is capable of simulating antialiasing, motion blur, depth of field, area light so ..."
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Cited by 5 (0 self)
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We introduce a strictly deterministic, meaning nonrandom, rendering method, which performs superior to state of the art Monte Carlo techniques. Its simple and elegant implementation on parallel computer architectures is capable of simulating antialiasing, motion blur, depth of field, area light sources, glossy reflection and transmission, participating media, and global illumination. We provide a selfcontained exposition of the underlying mathematical principles and illustrate how the design of quasiMonte Carlo algorithms, i.e. strictly deterministic sampling methods based on number theory, is related to Monte Carlo algorithms based on probability theory.
Interactive transfer function control for monte carlo volume rendering
 In VV ’04: Proceedings of the 2004 IEEE Symposium on Volume Visualization and Graphics (VV’04
, 2004
"... Figure 1: Monte Carlo volume rendering with (b, d) and without (a, c) transfer function parameter tuning. Although Monte Carlo Volume Rendering (MCVR) is an efficient pointbased technique for generating simulated Xray images from large CT data, its practical application in medical imaging systems ..."
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Cited by 4 (0 self)
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Figure 1: Monte Carlo volume rendering with (b, d) and without (a, c) transfer function parameter tuning. Although Monte Carlo Volume Rendering (MCVR) is an efficient pointbased technique for generating simulated Xray images from large CT data, its practical application in medical imaging systems is limited by the relatively expensive preprocessing. The quality of images is strongly influenced by the transfer function, which maps a data value onto a sampling probability. An appropriate transfer function concentrates the point samples onto the region of interest. Since it is data dependent, a fine parameter tuning is necessary. However, the costly preprocessing has to be repeated whenever the transfer function parameters are modified. In this paper a new preprocessing algorithm is proposed for MCVR, which allows for an interactive transfer function control in the rendering phase, providing a visual feedback in a couple of seconds. In order to rapidly recompute point samples according to the modified transfer function, an efficient hybrid sampling strategy is applied, which combines the advantages of the probabilistic Monte Carlo sampling and the deterministic quasiMonte Carlo sampling.
Stochastic glossy global illumination on the gpu
 In Proceedings of the 21st spring conference on computer graphics
, 2005
"... This paper presents an algorithm for the glossy global illumination problem, which runs on the Graphics Processing Unit (GPU). In order to meet the architectural limitations of the GPU, we apply randomization in the iteration scheme. Randomization allows to use that set of the possible light interac ..."
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Cited by 3 (0 self)
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This paper presents an algorithm for the glossy global illumination problem, which runs on the Graphics Processing Unit (GPU). In order to meet the architectural limitations of the GPU, we apply randomization in the iteration scheme. Randomization allows to use that set of the possible light interactions, which can be efficiently computed by the GPU, and makes it unnecessary to read back the result to the CPU. Instead of tessellating the surface geometry, the radiance is stored in texture space, and is updated in each iteration. The visibility problem is solved by hardware shadow mapping after hemicube projection. The shooter of the iteration step is selected by a custom mipmapping scheme, realizing approximate importance sampling. The variance is further reduced by partial analytic integration. 1