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A General Stochastic Approach to Solving Problems with Hard and Soft Constraints
 The Satisfiability Problem: Theory and Applications
, 1996
"... . Many AI problems can be conveniently encoded as discrete constraint satisfaction problems. It is often the case that not all solutions to a CSP are equally desirable  in general, one is interested in a set of "preferred" solutions (for example, solutions that minimize some cost functi ..."
Abstract

Cited by 51 (1 self)
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. Many AI problems can be conveniently encoded as discrete constraint satisfaction problems. It is often the case that not all solutions to a CSP are equally desirable  in general, one is interested in a set of "preferred" solutions (for example, solutions that minimize some cost function) . Preferences can be encoded by incorporating "soft" constraints in the problem instance. We show how both hard and soft constraints can be handled by encoding problems as instances of weighted MAXSAT (finding a model that maximizes the sum of the weights of the satisfied clauses that make up a problem instance). We generalize a localsearch algorithm for satisfiability to handle weighted MAXSAT. To demonstrate the effectiveness of our approach, we present experimental results on encodings of a set of wellstudied network Steinertree problems. This approach turns out to be competitive with some of the best current specialized algorithms developed in operations research. 1. Introduction Traditi...
Solving Problems with Hard and Soft Constraints Using a Stochastic Algorithm for MAXSAT
, 1995
"... Stochastic local search is an effective technique for solving certain classes of large, hard propositional satisfiability problems, including propositional encodings of problems such as circuit synthesis and graph coloring (Selman, Levesque, and Mitchell 1992; Selman, Kautz, and Cohen 1994). Many pr ..."
Abstract

Cited by 42 (3 self)
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Stochastic local search is an effective technique for solving certain classes of large, hard propositional satisfiability problems, including propositional encodings of problems such as circuit synthesis and graph coloring (Selman, Levesque, and Mitchell 1992; Selman, Kautz, and Cohen 1994). Many problems of interest to AI and operations research cannot be conveniently encoded as simple satisfiability, because they involve both hard and soft constraints  that is, any solution may have to violate some of the less important constraints. We show how both kinds of constraints can be handled by encoding problems as instances of weighted MAXSAT (finding a model that maximizes the sum of the weights of the satisfied clauses that make up a problem instance). We generalize our localsearch algorithm for satisfiability (GSAT) to handle weighted MAXSAT, and present experimental results on encodings of the Steiner tree problem, which is a wellstudied hard combinatorial search problem. On many...