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597
Parameterized Complexity
, 1998
"... the rapidly developing systematic connections between FPT and useful heuristic algorithms  a new and exciting bridge between the theory of computing and computing in practice. The organizers of the seminar strongly believe that knowledge of parameterized complexity techniques and results belongs ..."
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Cited by 1213 (77 self)
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the rapidly developing systematic connections between FPT and useful heuristic algorithms  a new and exciting bridge between the theory of computing and computing in practice. The organizers of the seminar strongly believe that knowledge of parameterized complexity techniques and results belongs into the toolkit of every algorithm designer. The purpose of the seminar was to bring together leading experts from all over the world, and from the diverse areas of computer science that have been attracted to this new framework. The seminar was intended as the rst larger international meeting with a specic focus on parameterized complexity, and it hopefully serves as a driving force in the development of the eld. 1 We had 49 participants from Australia, Canada, India, Israel, New Zealand, USA, and various European countries. During the workshop 25 lectures were given. Moreover, one night session was devoted to open problems and Thursday was basically used for problem discussion
Robot Motion Planning: A Distributed Representation Approach
, 1991
"... We propose a new approach to robot path planning that consists of building and searching a graph connecting the local minima of a potential function defined over the robot’s configuration space. A planner based on this approach has been implemented. This planner is considerably faster than previous ..."
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Cited by 402 (26 self)
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We propose a new approach to robot path planning that consists of building and searching a graph connecting the local minima of a potential function defined over the robot’s configuration space. A planner based on this approach has been implemented. This planner is considerably faster than previous path planners and solves problems for robots with many more degrees of freedom (DOFs). The power of the planner derives both from the "good " properties of the potential function and from the efficiency of the techniques used to escape the local minima of this function. The most powerful of these techniques is a Monte Carlo technique that escapes local minima by executing Brownian motions. The overall approach is made possible by the systematic use of distributed representations (bitmaps) for the robot’s work space and configuration space. We have experimented with the planner using several computersimulated robots, including rigid objects with 3 DOFs (in 2D work space) and 6 DOFs (in 3D work space) and manipulator arms with 8, 10, and 31 DOFs (in 2D and 3D work spaces). Some of the most significant experiments are reported in this article.
Nonholonomic motion planning: Steering using sinusoids
 IEEE fins. Auto. Control
, 1993
"... AbstractIn this paper, we investigate methods for steering systems with nonholonomic constraints between arbitrary configurations. Early work by Brockett derives the optimal controls for a set of canonical systems in which the tangent space to the configuration manifold is spanned by the input vec ..."
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Cited by 363 (15 self)
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AbstractIn this paper, we investigate methods for steering systems with nonholonomic constraints between arbitrary configurations. Early work by Brockett derives the optimal controls for a set of canonical systems in which the tangent space to the configuration manifold is spanned by the input vector fields and their first order Lie brackets. Using Brockett’s result as motivation, we derive suboptimal trajectories for systems which are not in canonical form and consider systems in which it takes more than one level of bracketing to achieve controllability. These trajectories use sinusoids at integrally related frequencies to achieve motion at a given bracketing level. We define a class of systems which can be steered using sinusoids (chained systems) and give conditions under which a class of twoinput systems can be converted into this form. I.
Experiences with an Interactive Museum TourGuide Robot
, 1998
"... This article describes the software architecture of an autonomous, interactive tourguide robot. It presents a modular and distributed software architecture, which integrates localization, mapping, collision avoidance, planning, and various modules concerned with user interaction and Webbased telep ..."
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Cited by 329 (72 self)
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This article describes the software architecture of an autonomous, interactive tourguide robot. It presents a modular and distributed software architecture, which integrates localization, mapping, collision avoidance, planning, and various modules concerned with user interaction and Webbased telepresence. At its heart, the software approach relies on probabilistic computation, online learning, and anytime algorithms. It enables robots to operate safely, reliably, and at high speeds in highly dynamic environments, and does not require any modifications of the environment to aid the robot's operation. Special emphasis is placed on the design of interactive capabilities that appeal to people's intuition. The interface provides new means for humanrobot interaction with crowds of people in public places, and it also provides people all around the world with the ability to establish a "virtual telepresence" using the Web. To illustrate our approach, results are reported obtained in mid...
Estimation of Planar Curves, Surfaces, and Nonplanar Space Curves Defined by Implicit Equations with Applications to Edge and Range Image Segmentation
, 1991
"... This paper addresses the problem of parametric representation and estimation of complex planar curves in 2D, surfaces in 3D and nonplanar space curves in 3D. Curves and surfaces can be defined either parametrically or implicitly, and we use the latter representation. A planar curve is the set o ..."
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Cited by 314 (2 self)
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This paper addresses the problem of parametric representation and estimation of complex planar curves in 2D, surfaces in 3D and nonplanar space curves in 3D. Curves and surfaces can be defined either parametrically or implicitly, and we use the latter representation. A planar curve is the set of zeros of a smooth function of two variables XY, a surface is the set of zeros of a smooth function of three variables X~Z, and a space curve is the intersection of two surfaces, which are the set of zeros of two linearly independent smooth functions of three variables X!/Z. For example, the surface of a complex object in 3D can be represented as a subset of a single implicit surface, with similar results for planar and space curves. We show how this unified representation can be used for object recognition, object position estimation, and segmentation of objects into meaningful subobjects, that is, the detection of “interest regions ” that are
Path Planning Using Lazy PRM
 In IEEE Int. Conf. Robot. & Autom
, 2000
"... This paper describes a new approach to probabilistic roadmap planners (PRMs). The overall theme of the algorithm, called Lazy PRM, is to minimize the number of collision checks performed during planning and hence minimize the running time of the planner. Our algorithm builds a roadmap in the configu ..."
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Cited by 243 (20 self)
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This paper describes a new approach to probabilistic roadmap planners (PRMs). The overall theme of the algorithm, called Lazy PRM, is to minimize the number of collision checks performed during planning and hence minimize the running time of the planner. Our algorithm builds a roadmap in the configuration space, whose nodes are the userdefined initial and goal configurations and a number of randomly generated nodes. Neighboring nodes are connected by edges representing paths between the nodes. In contrast with PRMs, our planner initially assumes that all nodes and edges in the roadmap are collisionfree, and searches the roadmap at hand for a shortest path between the initial and the goal node. The nodes and edges along the path are then checked for collision. If a collision with the obstacles occurs, the corresponding nodes and edges are removed from the roadmap. Our planner either finds a new shortest path, or first updates the roadmap with new nodes and edges, and then searches for a shortest path. The above process is repeated until a collisionfree path is returned.
Orienting Polygonal Parts without Sensors
, 1992
"... In manufacturing, it is often necessary to orient parts prior to packing or assembly. We say that a planar part is polygonal if its convex hull is a polygon. We consider the following problem: given a list of n vertices describing a polygonal part whose initial orientation is unknown, find the short ..."
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Cited by 205 (41 self)
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In manufacturing, it is often necessary to orient parts prior to packing or assembly. We say that a planar part is polygonal if its convex hull is a polygon. We consider the following problem: given a list of n vertices describing a polygonal part whose initial orientation is unknown, find the shortest sequence of mechanical gripper actions that is guaranteed to orient the part up to symmetry in its convex hull. We show that such a sequence exists for any polygonal part by giving an O#n log n# algorithm for finding the sequence. Since the gripper actions do not require feedback, this result implies that any polygonal part can be oriented without sensors.
Probabilistic Algorithms in Robotics
 AI Magazine vol
"... This article describes a methodology for programming robots known as probabilistic robotics. The probabilistic paradigm pays tribute to the inherent uncertainty in robot perception, relying on explicit representations of uncertainty when determining what to do. This article surveys some of the progr ..."
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Cited by 199 (6 self)
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This article describes a methodology for programming robots known as probabilistic robotics. The probabilistic paradigm pays tribute to the inherent uncertainty in robot perception, relying on explicit representations of uncertainty when determining what to do. This article surveys some of the progress in the field, using indepth examples to illustrate some of the nuts and bolts of the basic approach. Our central conjecture is that the probabilistic approach to robotics scales better to complex realworld applications than approaches that ignore a robot’s uncertainty. 1
Probabilistic Algorithms and the Interactive Museum TourGuide Robot Minerva
, 2000
"... This paper describes Minerva, an interactive tourguide robot that was successfully deployed in a Smithsonian museum. Minerva's software is pervasively probabilistic, relying on explicit representations of uncertainty in perception and control. This article describes ..."
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Cited by 196 (38 self)
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This paper describes Minerva, an interactive tourguide robot that was successfully deployed in a Smithsonian museum. Minerva's software is pervasively probabilistic, relying on explicit representations of uncertainty in perception and control. This article describes
Interaction and Intelligent Behavior
, 1994
"... This thesis addresses situated, embodied agents interacting in complex domains. It focuses on two problems: 1) synthesis and analysis of intelligent group behavior, and 2) learning in complex group environments. Basic behaviors, control laws that cluster constraints to achieve particular goals and h ..."
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Cited by 174 (20 self)
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This thesis addresses situated, embodied agents interacting in complex domains. It focuses on two problems: 1) synthesis and analysis of intelligent group behavior, and 2) learning in complex group environments. Basic behaviors, control laws that cluster constraints to achieve particular goals and have the appropriate compositional properties, are proposed as effective primitives for control and learning. The thesis describes the process of selecting such basic behaviors, formally specifying them, algorithmically implementing them, and empirically evaluating them. All of the proposed ideas are validated with a group of up to 20 mobile robots using a basic behavior set consisting of: safewandering, following, aggregation, dispersion, and homing. The set of basic behaviors acts as a substrate for achieving more complex highlevel goals and tasks. Two behavior combination operators are introduced, and verified by combining subsets of the above basic behavior set to implement collective flocking, foraging, and docking. A methodology is introduced for automatically constructing higherlevel behaviors