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101
A new approach to abstract syntax with variable binding
 Formal Aspects of Computing
, 2002
"... Abstract. The permutation model of set theory with atoms (FMsets), devised by Fraenkel and Mostowski in the 1930s, supports notions of ‘nameabstraction ’ and ‘fresh name ’ that provide a new way to represent, compute with, and reason about the syntax of formal systems involving variablebinding op ..."
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Cited by 286 (64 self)
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Abstract. The permutation model of set theory with atoms (FMsets), devised by Fraenkel and Mostowski in the 1930s, supports notions of ‘nameabstraction ’ and ‘fresh name ’ that provide a new way to represent, compute with, and reason about the syntax of formal systems involving variablebinding operations. Inductively defined FMsets involving the nameabstraction set former (together with Cartesian product and disjoint union) can correctly encode syntax modulo renaming of bound variables. In this way, the standard theory of algebraic data types can be extended to encompass signatures involving binding operators. In particular, there is an associated notion of structural recursion for defining syntaxmanipulating functions (such as capture avoiding substitution, set of free variables, etc.) and a notion of proof by structural induction, both of which remain pleasingly close to informal practice in computer science. 1.
A New Approach to Abstract Syntax Involving Binders
 In 14th Annual Symposium on Logic in Computer Science
, 1999
"... Syntax Involving Binders Murdoch Gabbay Cambridge University DPMMS Cambridge CB2 1SB, UK M.J.Gabbay@cantab.com Andrew Pitts Cambridge University Computer Laboratory Cambridge CB2 3QG, UK ap@cl.cam.ac.uk Abstract The FraenkelMostowski permutation model of set theory with atoms (FMsets) ..."
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Cited by 176 (20 self)
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Syntax Involving Binders Murdoch Gabbay Cambridge University DPMMS Cambridge CB2 1SB, UK M.J.Gabbay@cantab.com Andrew Pitts Cambridge University Computer Laboratory Cambridge CB2 3QG, UK ap@cl.cam.ac.uk Abstract The FraenkelMostowski permutation model of set theory with atoms (FMsets) can serve as the semantic basis of metalogics for specifying and reasoning about formal systems involving name binding, ffconversion, capture avoiding substitution, and so on. We show that in FMset theory one can express statements quantifying over `fresh' names and we use this to give a novel settheoretic interpretation of name abstraction. Inductively defined FMsets involving this nameabstraction set former (together with cartesian product and disjoint union) can correctly encode objectlevel syntax modulo ffconversion. In this way, the standard theory of algebraic data types can be extended to encompass signatures involving binding operators. In particular, there is an associated n...
A topos perspective on the KochenSpecker Theorem: I. Quantum States . . .
, 1998
"... Any attempt to construct a realist interpretation of quantum theory founders on the KochenSpecker theorem, which asserts the impossibility of assigning values to quantum quantities in a way that preserves functional relations between them. We construct a new type of valuation which is defined on al ..."
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Cited by 116 (20 self)
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Any attempt to construct a realist interpretation of quantum theory founders on the KochenSpecker theorem, which asserts the impossibility of assigning values to quantum quantities in a way that preserves functional relations between them. We construct a new type of valuation which is defined on all operators, and which respects an appropriate version of the functional composition principle. The truthvalues assigned to propositions are (i) contextual; and (ii) multivalued, where the space of contexts and the multivalued logic for each context come naturally from the topos theory of presheaves. The first step in our theory is to demonstrate that the KochenSpecker theorem is equivalent to the statement that a certain presheaf
A topos foundation for theories of physics: I. Formal languages for physics
, 2007
"... This paper is the first in a series whose goal is to develop a fundamentally new way of constructing theories of physics. The motivation comes from a desire to address certain deep issues that arise when contemplating quantum theories of space and time. Our basic contention is that constructing a th ..."
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Cited by 26 (6 self)
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This paper is the first in a series whose goal is to develop a fundamentally new way of constructing theories of physics. The motivation comes from a desire to address certain deep issues that arise when contemplating quantum theories of space and time. Our basic contention is that constructing a theory of physics is equivalent to finding a representation in a topos of a certain formal language that is attached to the system. Classical physics arises when the topos is the category of sets. Other types of theory employ a different topos. In this paper we discuss two different types of language that can be attached to a system, S. The first is a propositional language, PL(S); the second is a higherorder, typed language L(S). Both languages provide deductive systems with an intuitionistic logic. The reason for introducing PL(S) is that, as shown in paper II of the series, it is the easiest way of understanding, and expanding on, the earlier work on topos theory and quantum physics. However, the main thrust of our programme utilises the more powerful language L(S) and its representation in an appropriate topos.
Iterated wreath product of the simplex category and iterated loop spaces
 Adv. Math
"... Abstract. Generalising Segal’s approach to 1fold loop spaces, the homotopy theory of nfold loop spaces is shown to be equivalent to the homotopy theory of reduced Θnspaces, where Θn is an iterated wreath product of the simplex category ∆. A sequence of functors from Θn to Γ allows for an alternat ..."
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Cited by 25 (5 self)
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Abstract. Generalising Segal’s approach to 1fold loop spaces, the homotopy theory of nfold loop spaces is shown to be equivalent to the homotopy theory of reduced Θnspaces, where Θn is an iterated wreath product of the simplex category ∆. A sequence of functors from Θn to Γ allows for an alternative description of the Segal spectrum associated to a Γspace. In particular, each EilenbergMacLane space has a canonical reduced Θnset model. The number of (n + d)dimensional cells of the resulting CWcomplex of type K(Z/2Z, n) is a generalised Fibonacci number.
Categorified algebra and quantum mechanics
, 2006
"... Interest in combinatorial interpretations of mathematical entities stems from the convenience of the concrete models they provide. Finding a bijective proof of a seemingly obscure identity can reveal unsuspected significance to it. Finding a combinatorial model for some mathematical entity is a par ..."
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Cited by 21 (3 self)
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Interest in combinatorial interpretations of mathematical entities stems from the convenience of the concrete models they provide. Finding a bijective proof of a seemingly obscure identity can reveal unsuspected significance to it. Finding a combinatorial model for some mathematical entity is a particular instance of the process called “categorification”. Examples include the interpretation of as the Burnside rig of the category of finite sets with product and coproduct, and the interpretation of [x] as the category of combinatorial species. This has interesting applications to quantum mechanics, and in particular the quantum harmonic oscillator, via Joyal’s “species”, a new generalization called “stuff types”, and operators between these, which can be represented as rudimentary Feynman diagrams for the oscillator. In quantum mechanics, we want to represent states in an algebra over the complex numbers, and also want our Feynman diagrams to carry more structure than these “stuff operators ” can do, and these turn out to be closely related. We will show how to construct a combinatorial model for the quantum harmonic
A Dependent Type Theory with Names and Binding
 In Proceedings of the 2004 Computer Science Logic Conference, number 3210 in Lecture notes in Computer Science
, 2004
"... We consider the problem of providing formal support for working with abstract syntax involving variable binders. Gabbay and Pitts have shown in their work on FraenkelMostowski (FM) set theory how to address this through firstclass names: in this paper we present a dependent type theory for prog ..."
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Cited by 18 (1 self)
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We consider the problem of providing formal support for working with abstract syntax involving variable binders. Gabbay and Pitts have shown in their work on FraenkelMostowski (FM) set theory how to address this through firstclass names: in this paper we present a dependent type theory for programming and reasoning with such names. Our development is based on a categorical axiomatisation of names, with freshness as its central notion. An associated adjunction captures constructions known from FM theory: the freshness quantifier N , namebinding, and unique choice of fresh names. The Schanuel topos  the category underlying FM set theory  is an instance of this axiomatisation.
Two Models of Synthetic Domain Theory
, 1997
"... This paper is concerned with models of SDT encompassing traditional categories of domains used in denotational semantics [7,18], showing that the synthetic approach generalises the standard theory of domains and suggests new problems to it. Consider a (locally small) category of domains D with a (sm ..."
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Cited by 12 (3 self)
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This paper is concerned with models of SDT encompassing traditional categories of domains used in denotational semantics [7,18], showing that the synthetic approach generalises the standard theory of domains and suggests new problems to it. Consider a (locally small) category of domains D with a (small) dense generator G equipped with a Grothendieck topology. Assume further that every cover in G is effective epimorphic in D. Then, by Yoneda, D embeds fully and faithfully in the topos of sheaves on G for the canonical topology, which thus provides a settheoretic universe for our original category of domains. In this paper we explore such a situation for two traditional categories of domains and, in particular, show that the Grothendieck toposes so arising yield models of SDT. In a subsequent paper we will investigate intrinsic characterizations, within our models, of these categories of domains. First, we present a model of SDT embedding the category !Cpo of posets with least upper bounds of countable chains (hence called !complete) and
'What is a thing?': Topos Theory in . . .
, 2008
"... The goal of this paper is to summarise the first steps in developing a fundamentally new way of constructing theories of physics. The motivation comes from a desire to address certain deep issues that arise when contemplating quantum theories of space and time. In doing so we provide a new answer t ..."
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Cited by 12 (1 self)
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The goal of this paper is to summarise the first steps in developing a fundamentally new way of constructing theories of physics. The motivation comes from a desire to address certain deep issues that arise when contemplating quantum theories of space and time. In doing so we provide a new answer to Heidegger’s timeless question “What is a thing?”. Our basic contention is that constructing a theory of physics is equivalent to finding a representation in a topos of a certain formal language that is attached to the system. Classical physics uses the topos of sets. Other theories involve a different topos. For the types of theory discussed in this paper, a key goal is to represent any physical quantity A with an arrow Ăφ: Σφ → Rφ where Σφ and Rφ are two special objects (the ‘stateobject’ and ‘quantityvalue object’) in the appropriate topos, τφ.
Big toy models: Representing physical systems as Chu spaces. Synthese, 2011. Online First, April 2011. Available as arXiv:0910.2393
 m,n 33 S. Abramsky. Relational Hidden Variables and NonLocality. Studia Logica
, 2012
"... We pursue a modeloriented rather than axiomatic approach to the foundations of Quantum Mechanics, with the idea that new models can often suggest new axioms. This approach has often been fruitful in Logic and Theoretical Computer Science. Rather than seeking to construct a simplified toy model, we ..."
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Cited by 11 (2 self)
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We pursue a modeloriented rather than axiomatic approach to the foundations of Quantum Mechanics, with the idea that new models can often suggest new axioms. This approach has often been fruitful in Logic and Theoretical Computer Science. Rather than seeking to construct a simplified toy model, we aim for a ‘big toy model’, in which both quantum and classical systems can be faithfully represented — as well as, possibly, more exotic kinds of systems. To this end, we show how Chu spaces can be used to represent physical systems of various kinds. In particular, we show how quantum systems can be represented as Chu spaces over the unit interval in such a way that the Chu morphisms correspond exactly to the physically meaningful symmetries of the systems — the unitaries and antiunitaries. In this way we obtain a full and faithful functor from the groupoid of Hilbert spaces and their symmetries to Chu spaces. We also consider whether it is possible to use a finite value set rather than the unit interval; we show that three values suffice, while the two standard possibilistic reductions to two values both fail to preserve fullness. 1