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48
A new approach to abstract syntax with variable binding
 Formal Aspects of Computing
, 2002
"... Abstract. The permutation model of set theory with atoms (FMsets), devised by Fraenkel and Mostowski in the 1930s, supports notions of ‘nameabstraction ’ and ‘fresh name ’ that provide a new way to represent, compute with, and reason about the syntax of formal systems involving variablebinding op ..."
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Cited by 207 (44 self)
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Abstract. The permutation model of set theory with atoms (FMsets), devised by Fraenkel and Mostowski in the 1930s, supports notions of ‘nameabstraction ’ and ‘fresh name ’ that provide a new way to represent, compute with, and reason about the syntax of formal systems involving variablebinding operations. Inductively defined FMsets involving the nameabstraction set former (together with Cartesian product and disjoint union) can correctly encode syntax modulo renaming of bound variables. In this way, the standard theory of algebraic data types can be extended to encompass signatures involving binding operators. In particular, there is an associated notion of structural recursion for defining syntaxmanipulating functions (such as capture avoiding substitution, set of free variables, etc.) and a notion of proof by structural induction, both of which remain pleasingly close to informal practice in computer science. 1.
A New Approach to Abstract Syntax Involving Binders
 In 14th Annual Symposium on Logic in Computer Science
, 1999
"... Syntax Involving Binders Murdoch Gabbay Cambridge University DPMMS Cambridge CB2 1SB, UK M.J.Gabbay@cantab.com Andrew Pitts Cambridge University Computer Laboratory Cambridge CB2 3QG, UK ap@cl.cam.ac.uk Abstract The FraenkelMostowski permutation model of set theory with atoms (FMsets) ..."
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Cited by 146 (14 self)
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Syntax Involving Binders Murdoch Gabbay Cambridge University DPMMS Cambridge CB2 1SB, UK M.J.Gabbay@cantab.com Andrew Pitts Cambridge University Computer Laboratory Cambridge CB2 3QG, UK ap@cl.cam.ac.uk Abstract The FraenkelMostowski permutation model of set theory with atoms (FMsets) can serve as the semantic basis of metalogics for specifying and reasoning about formal systems involving name binding, ffconversion, capture avoiding substitution, and so on. We show that in FMset theory one can express statements quantifying over `fresh' names and we use this to give a novel settheoretic interpretation of name abstraction. Inductively defined FMsets involving this nameabstraction set former (together with cartesian product and disjoint union) can correctly encode objectlevel syntax modulo ffconversion. In this way, the standard theory of algebraic data types can be extended to encompass signatures involving binding operators. In particular, there is an associated n...
A Dependent Type Theory with Names and Binding
 In Proceedings of the 2004 Computer Science Logic Conference, number 3210 in Lecture notes in Computer Science
, 2004
"... We consider the problem of providing formal support for working with abstract syntax involving variable binders. Gabbay and Pitts have shown in their work on FraenkelMostowski (FM) set theory how to address this through firstclass names: in this paper we present a dependent type theory for prog ..."
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Cited by 15 (1 self)
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We consider the problem of providing formal support for working with abstract syntax involving variable binders. Gabbay and Pitts have shown in their work on FraenkelMostowski (FM) set theory how to address this through firstclass names: in this paper we present a dependent type theory for programming and reasoning with such names. Our development is based on a categorical axiomatisation of names, with freshness as its central notion. An associated adjunction captures constructions known from FM theory: the freshness quantifier N , namebinding, and unique choice of fresh names. The Schanuel topos  the category underlying FM set theory  is an instance of this axiomatisation.
Categorified algebra and quantum mechanics, Theory and Applications of Categories 16
, 2006
"... Abstract. Interest in combinatorial interpretations of mathematical entities stems from the convenience of the concrete models they provide. Finding a bijective proof of a seemingly obscure identity can reveal unsuspected significance to it. Finding a combinatorial model for some mathematical entity ..."
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Cited by 13 (1 self)
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Abstract. Interest in combinatorial interpretations of mathematical entities stems from the convenience of the concrete models they provide. Finding a bijective proof of a seemingly obscure identity can reveal unsuspected significance to it. Finding a combinatorial model for some mathematical entity is a particular instance of the process called “categorification”. Examples include the interpretation of as the Burnside rig of the category of finite sets with product and coproduct, and the interpretation of [x] as the category of combinatorial species. This has interesting applications to quantum mechanics, and in particular the quantum harmonic oscillator, via Joyal’s “species”, a new generalization called “stuff types”, and operators between these, which can be represented as rudimentary Feynman diagrams for the oscillator. In quantum mechanics, we want to represent states in an algebra over the complex numbers, and also want our Feynman diagrams to carry more structure than these “stuff operators ” can do, and these turn out to be closely related. We will show how to construct a combinatorial model for the quantum harmonic
Two Models of Synthetic Domain Theory
, 1997
"... This paper is concerned with models of SDT encompassing traditional categories of domains used in denotational semantics [7,18], showing that the synthetic approach generalises the standard theory of domains and suggests new problems to it. Consider a (locally small) category of domains D with a (sm ..."
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Cited by 11 (3 self)
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This paper is concerned with models of SDT encompassing traditional categories of domains used in denotational semantics [7,18], showing that the synthetic approach generalises the standard theory of domains and suggests new problems to it. Consider a (locally small) category of domains D with a (small) dense generator G equipped with a Grothendieck topology. Assume further that every cover in G is effective epimorphic in D. Then, by Yoneda, D embeds fully and faithfully in the topos of sheaves on G for the canonical topology, which thus provides a settheoretic universe for our original category of domains. In this paper we explore such a situation for two traditional categories of domains and, in particular, show that the Grothendieck toposes so arising yield models of SDT. In a subsequent paper we will investigate intrinsic characterizations, within our models, of these categories of domains. First, we present a model of SDT embedding the category !Cpo of posets with least upper bounds of countable chains (hence called !complete) and
Iterated wreath product of the simplex category and iterated loop spaces
 Adv. Math
"... Abstract. Generalising Segal’s approach to 1fold loop spaces, the homotopy theory of nfold loop spaces is shown to be equivalent to the homotopy theory of reduced Θnspaces, where Θn is an iterated wreath product of the simplex category ∆. A sequence of functors from Θn to Γ allows for an alternat ..."
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Cited by 11 (4 self)
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Abstract. Generalising Segal’s approach to 1fold loop spaces, the homotopy theory of nfold loop spaces is shown to be equivalent to the homotopy theory of reduced Θnspaces, where Θn is an iterated wreath product of the simplex category ∆. A sequence of functors from Θn to Γ allows for an alternative description of the Segal spectrum associated to a Γspace. In particular, each EilenbergMacLane space has a canonical reduced Θnset model. The number of (n + d)dimensional cells of the resulting CWcomplex of type K(Z/2Z, n) is a generalised Fibonacci number.
A topos foundation for theories of physics: I. Formal languages for physics
, 2007
"... This paper is the first in a series whose goal is to develop a fundamentally new way of constructing theories of physics. The motivation comes from a desire to address certain deep issues that arise when contemplating quantum theories of space and time. Our basic contention is that constructing a th ..."
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Cited by 9 (3 self)
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This paper is the first in a series whose goal is to develop a fundamentally new way of constructing theories of physics. The motivation comes from a desire to address certain deep issues that arise when contemplating quantum theories of space and time. Our basic contention is that constructing a theory of physics is equivalent to finding a representation in a topos of a certain formal language that is attached to the system. Classical physics arises when the topos is the category of sets. Other types of theory employ a different topos. In this paper we discuss two different types of language that can be attached to a system, S. The first is a propositional language, PL(S); the second is a higherorder, typed language L(S). Both languages provide deductive systems with an intuitionistic logic. The reason for introducing PL(S) is that, as shown in paper II of the series, it is the easiest way of understanding, and expanding on, the earlier work on topos theory and quantum physics. However, the main thrust of our programme utilises the more powerful language L(S) and its representation in an appropriate topos.
Higher order symmetry of graphs
 In Lecture given at the September Meeting of the Irish Mathematical Society, available on the Author's web
, 1994
"... It advertises the joining of two themes: groups and symmetry; and categorical methods and analogues of set theory. Groups are expected to be associated with symmetry. Klein’s famous Erlanger Programme asserted that the study of a geometry was the study of the group of automorphisms of that geometry. ..."
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Cited by 6 (3 self)
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It advertises the joining of two themes: groups and symmetry; and categorical methods and analogues of set theory. Groups are expected to be associated with symmetry. Klein’s famous Erlanger Programme asserted that the study of a geometry was the study of the group of automorphisms of that geometry. The structure of group alone may not give all the expression one needs of the intuitive idea of symmetry. One often needs structured groups (for example topological, Lie, algebraic, order,...). Here we consider groups with the additional structure of directed graph, which we abbreviate to graph. This type of structure appears in [18, 14]. We shall associate with a graph A a group AUT(A) which is also a graph. The vertices of AUT(A) are the automorphism of the graph A and the edges between automorphisms give an expression of “adjacency ” of automorphisms. The vertices of this graph form a group, and so also do the edges. The automorphisms of A adjacent to the identity will be called the inner automorphisms of the graph A. One aspect of the problem is to describe these inner automorphisms in terms of the internal structure of the graph A. The second theme is that of regarding the usual category of sets and mappings as but one environment for doing mathematics, and one which may be replaced by others. We use the word “environment ” here rather than “foundation”, because the former word implies a more relativistic approach.
THE HOLE ARGUMENT. PHYSICAL EVENTS AND THE SUPERSPACE.
, 2006
"... The ”hole argument”(the English translation of German ”Lochbetrachtung”) was formulated by Albert Einstein in 1913 in his search for a relativistic theory of gravitation.([5]) The hole argument was deemed to be based on a trivial error of Einstein, until 1980 when John Stachel 1 recognized its highl ..."
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Cited by 5 (5 self)
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The ”hole argument”(the English translation of German ”Lochbetrachtung”) was formulated by Albert Einstein in 1913 in his search for a relativistic theory of gravitation.([5]) The hole argument was deemed to be based on a trivial error of Einstein, until 1980 when John Stachel 1 recognized its highly nontrivial character. Since then the argument has been intensively discussed by many physicists and philosophers of science. ( See e.g., [2], [3], [4], [25] [35], [12], [13], [24].) I shall provide here a coordinatefree formulation of the argument using the language of categories and bundles, and generalize the argument for arbitrary covariant and permutable theories (see [12],[13]). In conclusion I shall point out a way of avoiding the hole argument, by looking at the structure of the space of solutions of Einstein’s equations on a spacetime manifold. This superspace Q(M) is defined as the orbit space of spacetime solutions on M under the action of the diffeomorphisms of M, and it
Finitary Topos for Locally Finite, Causal and Quantal Vacuum Einstein Gravity, submitted to the
 International Journal of Theoretical Physics
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