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Logic Program Synthesis
, 1993
"... This paper presents an overview and a survey of logic program synthesis. Logic program synthesis is interpreted here in a broad way; it is concerned with the following question: given a specification, how do we get a logic program satisfying the specification? Logic programming provides a uniquely n ..."
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Cited by 38 (10 self)
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This paper presents an overview and a survey of logic program synthesis. Logic program synthesis is interpreted here in a broad way; it is concerned with the following question: given a specification, how do we get a logic program satisfying the specification? Logic programming provides a uniquely nice and uniform framework for program synthesis since the specification, the synthesis process and the resulting program can all be expressed in logic. Three main approaches to logic program synthesis by formal methods are described: constructive synthesis, deductive synthesis and inductive synthesis. Related issues such as correctness and verification as well as synthesis by informal methods are briefly presented. Our presentation is made coherent by employing a unified framework of terminology and notation, and by using the same running example for all the approaches covered. This paper thus intends to provide an assessment of existing work and a framework for future research in logic program synthesis.
Inductive Synthesis of Recursive Logic Programs
, 1997
"... The inductive synthesis of recursive logic programs from incomplete information, such as input/output examples, is a challenging subfield both of ILP (Inductive Logic Programming) and of the synthesis (in general) of logic programs from formal specifications. We first overview past and present achie ..."
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Cited by 34 (8 self)
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The inductive synthesis of recursive logic programs from incomplete information, such as input/output examples, is a challenging subfield both of ILP (Inductive Logic Programming) and of the synthesis (in general) of logic programs from formal specifications. We first overview past and present achievements, focusing on the techniques that were designed specifically for the inductive synthesis of recursive logic programs, but also discussing a few general ILP techniques that can also induce nonrecursive hypotheses. Then we analyse the prospects of these techniques in this task, investigating their applicability to software engineering as well as to knowledge acquisition and discovery.
Inductive Logic Program Synthesis with
 In S. Muggleton (ed), Proc. of ILP'96
, 1997
"... . dialogs (Dialoguebased Inductive and Abductive LOGic program Synthesizer) is a schemaguided synthesizer of recursive logic programs; it takes the initiative and queries a (possibly computationally naive) specifier for evidence in her/his conceptual language. The specifier must know the answe ..."
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Cited by 19 (7 self)
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. dialogs (Dialoguebased Inductive and Abductive LOGic program Synthesizer) is a schemaguided synthesizer of recursive logic programs; it takes the initiative and queries a (possibly computationally naive) specifier for evidence in her/his conceptual language. The specifier must know the answers to such simple queries, because otherwise s/he wouldn't even feel the need for the synthesized program. dialogs can be used by any learner (including itself) that detects, or merely conjectures, the necessity of invention of a new predicate. Due to its foundation on a powerful codification of a "recursiontheory" (by means of the template and constraints of a divideandconquer schema), dialogs needs very little evidence and is very fast. 1 Introduction This paper results from a study investigating (i) what is the minimal knowledge a specifier must have in order to want a (logic) program for a certain concept, and (ii) how to convey exactly the corresponding information, and nothi...
On Correct Program Schemas
"... We present our work on the representation and correctness of program schemas, in the context of logic program synthesis. Whereas most researchers represent schemas purely syntactically as higherorder expressions, we shall express a schema as an open firstorder theory that axiomatises a probl ..."
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Cited by 17 (11 self)
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We present our work on the representation and correctness of program schemas, in the context of logic program synthesis. Whereas most researchers represent schemas purely syntactically as higherorder expressions, we shall express a schema as an open firstorder theory that axiomatises a problem domain, called a specification framework, containing an open program that represents the template of the schema. We will show that using our approach we can define a meaningful notion of correctness for schemas, viz. that correct program schemas can be expressed as parametric specification frameworks containing templates that are steadfast, i.e. programs that are always correct provided their open relations are computed correctly.
On the Use of Inductive Reasoning in Program Synthesis: Prejudice and Prospects
 IN L. FRIBOURG AND F. TURINI (EDS), JOINT PROC. OF META'94 AND LOPSTR'94
, 1994
"... In this position paper, we give a critical analysis of the deductive and inductive approaches to program synthesis, and of the current research in these fields. From the shortcomings of these approaches and works, we identify future research directions for these fields, as well as a need for coopera ..."
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Cited by 13 (6 self)
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In this position paper, we give a critical analysis of the deductive and inductive approaches to program synthesis, and of the current research in these fields. From the shortcomings of these approaches and works, we identify future research directions for these fields, as well as a need for cooperation and crossfertilization between them.
Therapy Plan Generation in Complex Dynamic Environments
, 1994
"... There has been developed a methodology for the automatic synthesis of therapy plans for complex dynamic systems. An algorithm has been implemented and testet. This is the core of some control synthesis module which is embedded in a larger knowledgebased system for control, diagnosis and therapy. Th ..."
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Cited by 12 (12 self)
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There has been developed a methodology for the automatic synthesis of therapy plans for complex dynamic systems. An algorithm has been implemented and testet. This is the core of some control synthesis module which is embedded in a larger knowledgebased system for control, diagnosis and therapy. There are several applications. The approach is based on certain concepts of structured graphs. The overall search space is a family of hierarchically structured plans. Together with some goal specification it is forming a socalled rooted family. Simple concepts of graph substitution and rewriting are introduced. The output of the planner is a hierarchically structured plan. This has a uniquely determined normal form taken for execution. Plan generation is interpreted as inductive program synthesis. Indeed, the planner developed and implemented works as an inductive inference machine. It turns out that consistency and executability are two fundamental, but distinguished concepts. When describ...
Therapy Plan Generation as Program Synthesis
 In Setsuo Arikawa and K.P. Jantke, editors, Algorithmic Learning Theory, AII'94 & ALT'94, volume 872 of LNAI
, 1994
"... . There has been developed and implemented an algorithm for the automatic synthesis of therapy plans for complex dynamic systems. This algorithm is the core of some control synthesis module which is embedded in a larger knowledgebased system for control, diagnosis and therapy. There are several app ..."
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Cited by 12 (10 self)
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. There has been developed and implemented an algorithm for the automatic synthesis of therapy plans for complex dynamic systems. This algorithm is the core of some control synthesis module which is embedded in a larger knowledgebased system for control, diagnosis and therapy. There are several applications. The planning algorithm may be understood as an inductive program synthesis procedure. Its fundamentals are introduced and its key ideas are sketched. The dichotomy between executability and consistency is investigated. 1 Motivation and Introduction The main intention of the present paper is to establish a new link between two areas of research: Program Synthesis and Therapy Planning. Thus, the authors wish to advance both areas of research they are active in. For program synthesis, the intended integration may result in new and exciting problems characterized by particular constraints not investigated in the classical approaches, so far. Our approach may widen the view at automat...
Extensible Logic Program Schemata
"... . Schemabased transformational systems maintain a library of logic program schemata which capture large classes of logic programs. One of the shortcomings of schemabased transformation approaches is their reliance on a large (possibly incomplete) set of logic program schemata that is required in o ..."
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Cited by 11 (1 self)
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. Schemabased transformational systems maintain a library of logic program schemata which capture large classes of logic programs. One of the shortcomings of schemabased transformation approaches is their reliance on a large (possibly incomplete) set of logic program schemata that is required in order to capture all of the minor syntactic differences between semantically similar logic programs. By defining a set of extensible logic program schemata and an associated set of logic program transformations, it is possible to reduce the size of the schema library while maintaining the robustness of the transformational system. In our transformational system, we have defined a set of extensible logic program schemata in #Prolog. Because #Prolog is a higherorder logic programming language, it can be used as the representation language for both the logic programs and the extensible logic program schemata. In addition to the instantiation of predicate variables, extensible logic program sc...
Correctschemaguided Synthesis of Steadfast Programs
 In M. Lowry and Y. Ledru (eds), Proc. of ASE'97
, 1997
"... It can be argued that for (semi)automated software development, program schemas are indispensable, since they capture not only structured program design principles, but also domain knowledge, both of which are of crucial importance for hierarchical program synthesis. Most researchers represent sche ..."
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Cited by 11 (7 self)
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It can be argued that for (semi)automated software development, program schemas are indispensable, since they capture not only structured program design principles, but also domain knowledge, both of which are of crucial importance for hierarchical program synthesis. Most researchers represent schemas purely syntactically (as higherorder expressions) . This means that the knowledge captured by a schema is not formalised. We take a semantic approach and show that a schema can be formalised as an open (firstorder) logical theory that contains an open logic program. By using a special kind of correctness for open programs, called steadfastness, we can define and reason about the correctness of schemas. We also show how to use correct schemas to synthesise steadfast programs. 1. Introduction It can be argued that any systematic approach to software development must use some kind of schemabased strategies. In (semi)automated software development, program schemas become indispensable, s...
Tractable and Intractable SecondOrder Matching Problems
 In Proc. 5th Ann. Int. Computing and Combinatorics Conference (COCOON'99), LNCS 1627
, 1999
"... . The secondorder matching problem is the problem of determining, for a finite set {#t i , s i #  i # I} of pairs of a secondorder term t i and a firstorder closed term s i , called a matching expression, whether or not there exists a substitution # such that t i # = s i for each i # I ..."
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Cited by 10 (2 self)
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. The secondorder matching problem is the problem of determining, for a finite set {#t i , s i #  i # I} of pairs of a secondorder term t i and a firstorder closed term s i , called a matching expression, whether or not there exists a substitution # such that t i # = s i for each i # I . It is wellknown that the secondorder matching problem is NPcomplete. In this paper, we introduce the following restrictions of a matching expression: kary, kfv , predicate, ground , and functionfree. Then, we show that the secondorder matching problem is NPcomplete for a unary predicate, a unary ground, a ternary functionfree predicate, a binary functionfree ground, and an 1fv predicate matching expressions, while it is solvable in polynomial time for a binary functionfree predicate, a unary functionfree, a kfv functionfree (k # 0), and a ground predicate matching expressions. 1 Introduction The unification problem is the problem of determining whether or not any two ter...