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75
LogP: Towards a Realistic Model of Parallel Computation
, 1993
"... A vast body of theoretical research has focused either on overly simplistic models of parallel computation, notably the PRAM, or overly specific models that have few representatives in the real world. Both kinds of models encourage exploitation of formal loopholes, rather than rewarding developme ..."
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Cited by 498 (14 self)
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A vast body of theoretical research has focused either on overly simplistic models of parallel computation, notably the PRAM, or overly specific models that have few representatives in the real world. Both kinds of models encourage exploitation of formal loopholes, rather than rewarding development of techniques that yield performance across a range of current and future parallel machines. This paper offers a new parallel machine model, called LogP, that reflects the critical technology trends underlying parallel computers. It is intended to serve as a basis for developing fast, portable parallel algorithms and to offer guidelines to machine designers. Such a model must strike a balance between detail and simplicity in order to reveal important bottlenecks without making analysis of interesting problems intractable. The model is based on four parameters that specify abstractly the computing bandwidth, the communication bandwidth, the communication delay, and the efficiency of coupling communication and computation. Portable parallel algorithms typically adapt to the machine configuration, in terms of these parameters. The utility of the model is demonstrated through examples that are implemented on the CM5.
LogGP: Incorporating Long Messages into the LogP Model  One step closer towards a realistic model for parallel computation
, 1995
"... We present a new model of parallel computationthe LogGP modeland use it to analyze a number of algorithms, most notably, the single node scatter (onetoall personalized broadcast). The LogGP model is an extension of the LogP model for parallel computation [CKP + 93] which abstracts the comm ..."
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Cited by 237 (1 self)
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We present a new model of parallel computationthe LogGP modeland use it to analyze a number of algorithms, most notably, the single node scatter (onetoall personalized broadcast). The LogGP model is an extension of the LogP model for parallel computation [CKP + 93] which abstracts the communication of fixedsized short messages through the use of four parameters: the communication latency (L), overhead (o), bandwidth (g), and the number of processors (P ). As evidenced by experimental data, the LogP model can accurately predict communication performance when only short messages are sent (as on the CM5) [CKP + 93, CDMS94]. However, many existing parallel machines have special support for long messages and achieve a much higher bandwidth for long messages compared to short messages (e.g., IBM SP2, Paragon, Meiko CS2, Ncube/2). We extend the basic LogP model with a linear model for long messages. This combination, which we call the LogGP model of parallel computation, has o...
WaitFree Data Structures in the Asynchronous PRAM Model
 In Proceedings of the 2nd Annual Symposium on Parallel Algorithms and Architectures
, 2000
"... In the asynchronous PRAM model, processes communicate by atomically reading and writing shared memory locations. This paper investigates the extent to which asynchronous PRAM permits longlived, highly concurrent data structures. An implementation of a concurrent object is waitfree if every operati ..."
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Cited by 65 (13 self)
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In the asynchronous PRAM model, processes communicate by atomically reading and writing shared memory locations. This paper investigates the extent to which asynchronous PRAM permits longlived, highly concurrent data structures. An implementation of a concurrent object is waitfree if every operation will complete in a finite number of steps, and it is kbounded waitfree, for some k > 0, if every operation will complete within k steps. In the first part of this paper, we show that there are objects with waitfree implementations but no kbounded waitfree implementations for any k, and that there is an infinite hierarchy of objects with implementations that are kbounded waitfree but not Kbounded waitfree for some K > k. In the second part of the paper, we give an algebraic characterization of a large class of objects that do have waitfree implementations in asynchronous PRAM, as well as a general algorithm for implementing them. Our tools include simple iterative algorithms for waitfree approximate agreement and atomic snapshot.
Models of Parallel Computation: A Survey and Synthesis
 INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON SYSTEM SCIENCES
, 1995
"... In the realm of sequential computing the random access machine has successufully provided an underlying model of computation that promoted consistency and coordination among algorithm developers, computer architects and language experts. In the realm of parallel computing, however, there has been no ..."
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Cited by 52 (0 self)
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In the realm of sequential computing the random access machine has successufully provided an underlying model of computation that promoted consistency and coordination among algorithm developers, computer architects and language experts. In the realm of parallel computing, however, there has been no similar success. The need for such a unifying parallel model or set of models is heightened by the greater demand for performance and the greater diversity among machines. Yet the modeling of parallel computing still seems to be mired in controversy and chaos. This paper is an excerpt from a study which presents broad range of models of parallel computation and the different roles they serve in algorithm, language and machine design. The objective is to better understand which model characteristics are important to each design community in order to elucidate the requirements of a unifying paradigm. As an impetus for discussion, we conclude by suggesting a model of parallel computation which...
Waitfree Parallel Algorithms for the UnionFind Problem
 In Proc. 23rd ACM Symposium on Theory of Computing
, 1994
"... We are interested in designing efficient data structures for a shared memory multiprocessor. In this paper we focus on the UnionFind data structure. We consider a fully asynchronous model of computation where arbitrary delays are possible. Thus we require our solutions to the data structure problem ..."
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Cited by 50 (0 self)
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We are interested in designing efficient data structures for a shared memory multiprocessor. In this paper we focus on the UnionFind data structure. We consider a fully asynchronous model of computation where arbitrary delays are possible. Thus we require our solutions to the data structure problem have the waitfree property, meaning that each thread continues to make progress on its operations, independent of the speeds of the other threads. In this model efficiency is best measured in terms of the total number of instructions used to perform a sequence of data structure operations, the work performed by the processors. We give a waitfree implementation of an efficient algorithm for UnionFind. In addition we show that the worst case performance of the algorithm can be improved by simulating a synchronized algorithm, or by simulating a larger machine if the data structure requests support sufficient parallelism. Our solutions apply to a much more general adversary model than has be...
Can a SharedMemory Model Serve as a Bridging Model for Parallel Computation?
, 1999
"... There has been a great deal of interest recently in the development of generalpurpose bridging models for parallel computation. Models such as the BSP and LogP have been proposed as more realistic alternatives to the widely used PRAM model. The BSP and LogP models imply a rather different style fo ..."
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Cited by 42 (11 self)
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There has been a great deal of interest recently in the development of generalpurpose bridging models for parallel computation. Models such as the BSP and LogP have been proposed as more realistic alternatives to the widely used PRAM model. The BSP and LogP models imply a rather different style for designing algorithms when compared with the PRAM model. Indeed, while many consider data parallelism as a convenient style, and the sharedmemory abstraction as an easytouse platform, the bandwidth limitations of current machines have diverted much attention to messagepassing and distributedmemory models (such as the BSP and LogP) that account more properly for these limitations. In this paper we consider the question of whether a sharedmemory model can serve as an effective bridging model for parallel computation. In particular, can a sharedmemory model be as effective as, say, the BSP? As a candidate for a bridging model, we introduce the Queuing SharedMemory (QSM) model, which accounts for limited communication bandwidth while still providing a simple sharedmemory abstraction. We substantiate the ability of the QSM to serve as a bridging model by providing a simple workpreserving emulation of the QSM on both the BSP, and on a related model, the (d, x)BSP. We present evidence that the features of the QSM are essential to its effectiveness as a bridging model. In addition, we describe scenarios
Parallel Algorithms with Processor Failures and Delays
, 1995
"... We study efficient deterministic parallel algorithms on two models: restartable failstop CRCW PRAMs and asynchronous PRAMs. In the first model, synchronous processors are subject to arbitrary stop failures and restarts determined by an online adversary and involving loss of private but not shared ..."
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Cited by 42 (7 self)
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We study efficient deterministic parallel algorithms on two models: restartable failstop CRCW PRAMs and asynchronous PRAMs. In the first model, synchronous processors are subject to arbitrary stop failures and restarts determined by an online adversary and involving loss of private but not shared memory; the complexity measures are completed work (where processors are charged for completed fixedsize update cycles) and overhead ratio (completed work amortized over necessary work and failures). In the second model, the result of the computation is a serializaton of the actions of the processors determined by an online adversary; the complexity measure is total work (number of steps taken by all processors). Despite their differences the two models share key algorithmic techniques. We present new algorithms for the WriteAll problem (in which P processors write ones into an array of size N ) for the two models. These algorithms can be used to implement a simulation strategy for any N ...
Are WaitFree Algorithms Fast?
, 1991
"... The time complexity of waitfree algorithms in "normal" executions, where no failures occur and processes operate at approximately the same speed, is considered. A lower bound of log n on the time complexity of any waitfree algorithm that achieves approximate agreement among n processes i ..."
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Cited by 40 (11 self)
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The time complexity of waitfree algorithms in "normal" executions, where no failures occur and processes operate at approximately the same speed, is considered. A lower bound of log n on the time complexity of any waitfree algorithm that achieves approximate agreement among n processes is proved. In contrast, there exists a nonwaitfree algorithm that solves this problem in constant time. This implies an (log n) time separation between the waitfree and nonwaitfree computation models. On the positive side, we present an O(log n) time waitfree approximate agreement algorithm; the complexity of this algorithm is within a small constant of the lower bound.
Highly Efficient Asynchronous Execution of LargeGrained Parallel Programs
, 1993
"... An nthread parallel program P is largegrained if in every parallel step the computations on each of the threads are complex procedures requiring numerous processor instructions. This practically relevant style of programs differs from PRAM programs in its large granularity and the possibility that ..."
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Cited by 31 (10 self)
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An nthread parallel program P is largegrained if in every parallel step the computations on each of the threads are complex procedures requiring numerous processor instructions. This practically relevant style of programs differs from PRAM programs in its large granularity and the possibility that within a parallel step the computations on different threads may considerably vary in size. Let M be an nprocessor asynchronous parallel system, with no restriction on the. degree of asynchrony and without any specialized synchronization mechanisms. It is a challenging theoretical as well as practically important problem to ensure correct execution of P on such a parallel machine. Let P be a largegrained program requiring total work W for its execution on a synchronous nprocessor parallel system. We present a transformation (compilation) of P into a program C(P) which correctly and efficiently effects the computation of P on the asynchronous machine M. Under moderate assumptions on the granularity of threads and the size of the program variables, execution of C(P) requires just O(Wlog * n) expected total work, and the memory space overhead is a small multiplicative constant. This result is the first of its kind. The solution involves a number of new concepts and methods. These include methods for storing program and control variables, employing a combination
Explicit MultiThreading (XMT) Bridging Models for Instruction Parallelism
 Proc. 10th ACM Symposium on Parallel Algorithms and Architectures (SPAA
, 1998
"... The paper envisions an extension to a standard instruction set which efficiently implements PRAM algorithms using explicit multithreaded instructionlevel parallelism (ILP); that is, Explicit MultiThreading (XMT), a finegrained computational paradigm covering the spectrum from algorithms throu ..."
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Cited by 30 (12 self)
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The paper envisions an extension to a standard instruction set which efficiently implements PRAM algorithms using explicit multithreaded instructionlevel parallelism (ILP); that is, Explicit MultiThreading (XMT), a finegrained computational paradigm covering the spectrum from algorithms through architecture to implementation is introduced; new elements are added where needed. The more detailed presentation is by way of a bridging model. Among other things, a bridging model provides a design space for algorithm designers and programmers, as well as a design space for computer architects. It is convenient to describe our wider vision regarding "parallelcomputingonachip" as a twostage development and therefore two bridging models are presented: Spawnbased multithreading (SpawnMT) and Elastic multithreading (EMT). The case for SpawnMT (or, alternatively, EMT) as a bridging model relies on the following evidence. (1) SpawnMT comprises an "instruction set level", wh...