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PSHOQ(D): A Probabilistic Extension of SHOQ(D) for Probabilistic Ontologies in the Semantic Web
, 2002
"... Ontologies play a central role in the development of the semantic web, as they provide precise definitions of shared terms in web resources. One important web ontology language is DAML+OIL; it has a formal semantics and a reasoning support through a mapping to the expressive description logic SHOQ ..."
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Cited by 83 (14 self)
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Ontologies play a central role in the development of the semantic web, as they provide precise definitions of shared terms in web resources. One important web ontology language is DAML+OIL; it has a formal semantics and a reasoning support through a mapping to the expressive description logic SHOQ(D) with the addition of inverse roles. In this paper, we present a probabilistic extension of SHOQ(D), called PSHOQ(D), to allow for dealing with probabilistic ontologies in the semantic web. The description logic PSHOQ(D) is based on the notion of probabilistic lexicographic entailment from probabilistic default reasoning. It allows to express rich probabilistic knowledge about concepts and instances, as well as default knowledge about concepts. We also present sound and complete reasoning techniques for PSHOQ(D), which are based on reductions to classical reasoning in SHOQ(D) and to linear programming, and which show in particular that reasoning in PSHOQ(D) is decidable.
Issues in multiagent resource allocation
 INFORMATICA
, 2006
"... The allocation of resources within a system of autonomous agents, that not only have preferences over alternative allocations of resources but also actively participate in computing an allocation, is an exciting area of research at the interface of Computer Science and Economics. This paper is a sur ..."
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Cited by 70 (17 self)
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The allocation of resources within a system of autonomous agents, that not only have preferences over alternative allocations of resources but also actively participate in computing an allocation, is an exciting area of research at the interface of Computer Science and Economics. This paper is a survey of some of the most salient issues in Multiagent Resource Allocation. In particular, we review various languages to represent the preferences of agents over alternative allocations of resources as well as different measures of social welfare to assess the overall quality of an allocation. We also discuss pertinent issues regarding allocation procedures and present important complexity results. Our presentation of theoretical issues is complemented by a discussion of software packages for the simulation of agentbased market places. We also introduce four major application areas for Multiagent Resource Allocation, namely industrial procurement, sharing of satellite resources, manufacturing control, and grid computing.
Nonmonotonic Reasoning, Conditional Objects and Possibility Theory
 Artificial Intelligence
, 1997
"... . This short paper relates the conditional objectbased and possibility theorybased approaches for reasoning with conditional statements pervaded with exceptions, to other methods in nonmonotonic reasoning which have been independently proposed: namely, Lehmann's preferential and rational closure en ..."
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Cited by 68 (17 self)
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. This short paper relates the conditional objectbased and possibility theorybased approaches for reasoning with conditional statements pervaded with exceptions, to other methods in nonmonotonic reasoning which have been independently proposed: namely, Lehmann's preferential and rational closure entailments which obey normative postulates, the infinitesimal probability approach, and the conditional (modal) logicsbased approach. All these methods are shown to be equivalent with respect to their capabilities for reasoning with conditional knowledge although they are based on different modeling frameworks. It thus provides a unified understanding of nonmonotonic consequence relations. More particularly, conditional objects, a purely qualitative counterpart to conditional probabilities, offer a very simple semantics, based on a 3valued calculus, for the preferential entailment, while in the purely ordinal setting of possibility theory both the preferential and the rational closure entai...
Managing Uncertainty and Vagueness in Description Logics for the Semantic Web
, 2007
"... Ontologies play a crucial role in the development of the Semantic Web as a means for defining shared terms in web resources. They are formulated in web ontology languages, which are based on expressive description logics. Significant research efforts in the semantic web community are recently direct ..."
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Cited by 58 (7 self)
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Ontologies play a crucial role in the development of the Semantic Web as a means for defining shared terms in web resources. They are formulated in web ontology languages, which are based on expressive description logics. Significant research efforts in the semantic web community are recently directed towards representing and reasoning with uncertainty and vagueness in ontologies for the Semantic Web. In this paper, we give an overview of approaches in this context to managing probabilistic uncertainty, possibilistic uncertainty, and vagueness in expressive description logics for the Semantic Web.
Belief Functions and Default Reasoning
, 2000
"... We present a new approach to deal with default information based on the theory of belief functions. Our semantic structures, inspired by Adams' epsilon semantics, are epsilonbelief assignments, where mass values are either close to 0 or close to 1. In the first part of this paper, we show that t ..."
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Cited by 38 (3 self)
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We present a new approach to deal with default information based on the theory of belief functions. Our semantic structures, inspired by Adams' epsilon semantics, are epsilonbelief assignments, where mass values are either close to 0 or close to 1. In the first part of this paper, we show that these structures can be used to give a uniform semantics to several popular nonmonotonic systems, including Kraus, Lehmann and Magidor's system P, Pearl's system Z, Brewka's preferred subtheories, Geffner's conditional entailment, Pinkas' penalty logic, possibilistic logic and the lexicographic approach. In the second part, we use epsilonbelief assignments to build a new system, called LCD, and show that this system correctly addresses the wellknown problems of specificity, irrelevance, blocking of inheritance, ambiguity, and redundancy.
How to Infer from Inconsistent Beliefs without Revising?
 Proc. IJCAI'95
, 1995
"... This paper investigates several methods for coping with inconsistency caused by multiple source information, by introducing suitable consequence relations capable of inferring nontrivial conclusions from an inconsistent stratified knowledge base. Some of these methods presuppose a revision step, na ..."
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Cited by 38 (3 self)
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This paper investigates several methods for coping with inconsistency caused by multiple source information, by introducing suitable consequence relations capable of inferring nontrivial conclusions from an inconsistent stratified knowledge base. Some of these methods presuppose a revision step, namely a selection of one or several consistent subsets of formulas, and then classical inference is used for inferring from these subsets. Two alternative methods that do not require any revision step are studied: inference based on arguments, and a new approach called safely supported inference, where inconsistency is kept local. These two last methods look suitable when the inconsistency is due to the presence of several sources of information. The paper offers a comparative study of the various inference modes under inconsistency. 1 Introduction Inconsistency can be encountered in different reasoning tasks, in particular:  when reasoning with exceptiontolerant generic knowledge, where ...
How Hard is it to Revise a Belief Base?
, 1996
"... If a new piece of information contradicts our previously held beliefs, we have to revise our beliefs. This problem of belief revision arises in a number of areas in Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence, e.g., in updating logical database, in hypothetical reasoning, and in machine learning. M ..."
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Cited by 38 (0 self)
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If a new piece of information contradicts our previously held beliefs, we have to revise our beliefs. This problem of belief revision arises in a number of areas in Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence, e.g., in updating logical database, in hypothetical reasoning, and in machine learning. Most of the research in this area is influenced by work in philosophical logic, in particular by Gardenfors and his colleagues, who developed the theory of belief revision. Here we will focus on the computational aspects of this theory, surveying results that address the issue of the computational complexity of belief revision.
Probabilistic Default Reasoning with Conditional Constraints
 ANN. MATH. ARTIF. INTELL
, 2000
"... We present an approach to reasoning from statistical and subjective knowledge, which is based on a combination of probabilistic reasoning from conditional constraints with approaches to default reasoning from conditional knowledge bases. More precisely, we introduce the notions of , lexicographic, ..."
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Cited by 35 (20 self)
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We present an approach to reasoning from statistical and subjective knowledge, which is based on a combination of probabilistic reasoning from conditional constraints with approaches to default reasoning from conditional knowledge bases. More precisely, we introduce the notions of , lexicographic, and conditional entailment for conditional constraints, which are probabilistic generalizations of Pearl's entailment in system , Lehmann's lexicographic entailment, and Geffner's conditional entailment, respectively. We show that the new formalisms have nice properties. In particular, they show a similar behavior as referenceclass reasoning in a number of uncontroversial examples. The new formalisms, however, also avoid many drawbacks of referenceclass reasoning. More precisely, they can handle complex scenarios and even purely probabilistic subjective knowledge as input. Moreover, conclusions are drawn in a global way from all the available knowledge as a whole. We then show that the new formalisms also have nice general nonmonotonic properties. In detail, the new notions of , lexicographic, and conditional entailment have similar properties as their classical counterparts. In particular, they all satisfy the rationality postulates proposed by Kraus, Lehmann, and Magidor, and they have some general irrelevance and direct inference properties. Moreover, the new notions of  and lexicographic entailment satisfy the property of rational monotonicity. Furthermore, the new notions of , lexicographic, and conditional entailment are proper generalizations of both their classical counterparts and the classical notion of logical entailment for conditional constraints. Finally, we provide algorithms for reasoning under the new formalisms, and we analyze its computational com...
Probabilistic Logic under Coherence, ModelTheoretic Probabilistic Logic, and Default Reasoning
 Journal of Applied NonClassical Logics
"... We study probabilistic logic under the viewpoint of the coherence principle of de Finetti. In detail, we explore the relationship between coherencebased and modeltheoretic probabilistic logic. Interestingly, we show that the notions of gcoherence and of gcoherent entailment can be expressed by co ..."
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Cited by 23 (9 self)
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We study probabilistic logic under the viewpoint of the coherence principle of de Finetti. In detail, we explore the relationship between coherencebased and modeltheoretic probabilistic logic. Interestingly, we show that the notions of gcoherence and of gcoherent entailment can be expressed by combining notions in modeltheoretic probabilistic logic with concepts from default reasoning. Crucially, we even show that probabilistic reasoning under coherence is a probabilistic generalization of default reasoning in system P. That is, we provide a new probabilistic semantics for system P, which is neither based on infinitesimal probabilities nor on atomicbound (or also bigstepped) probabilities. These results also give new insight into default reasoning with conditional objects.
Qualitative Choice Logic
 Artificial Intelligence
, 2001
"... Qualitative choice logic (QCL) is a propositional logic for representing alternative, ranked options for problem solutions. The logic adds to classical propositional logic a new connective called ordered disjunction: A B intuitively means: if possible A, but if A is not possible then at least B ..."
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Cited by 22 (2 self)
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Qualitative choice logic (QCL) is a propositional logic for representing alternative, ranked options for problem solutions. The logic adds to classical propositional logic a new connective called ordered disjunction: A B intuitively means: if possible A, but if A is not possible then at least B. The semantics of qualitative choice logic is based on a preference relation among models. Consequences of QCL theories can be computed through a compilation to stratied knowledge bases which in turn, according to results in [2], can be compiled to classical propositional theories.