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Representing Action and Change by Logic Programs
 Journal of Logic Programming
, 1993
"... We represent properties of actions in a logic programming language that uses both classical negation and negation as failure. The method is applicable to temporal projection problems with incomplete information, as well as to reasoning about the past. It is proved to be sound relative to a semantics ..."
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Cited by 389 (28 self)
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We represent properties of actions in a logic programming language that uses both classical negation and negation as failure. The method is applicable to temporal projection problems with incomplete information, as well as to reasoning about the past. It is proved to be sound relative to a semantics of action based on states and transition functions. 1 Introduction This paper extends the work of Eshghi and Kowalski [6], Evans [7] and Apt and Bezem [1] on representing properties of actions in logic programming languages with negation as failure. Our goal is to overcome some of the limitations of the earlier work. The existing formalizations of action in logic programming are adequate for only the simplest kind of temporal reasoning"temporal projection." In a temporal projection problem, we are given a description of the initial state of the world, and use properties of actions to determine what the world will look like after a series of actions is performed. Moreover, the existing ...
Logic Programming and Negation: A Survey
 JOURNAL OF LOGIC PROGRAMMING
, 1994
"... We survey here various approaches which were proposed to incorporate negation in logic programs. We concentrate on the prooftheoretic and modeltheoretic issues and the relationships between them. ..."
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Cited by 245 (8 self)
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We survey here various approaches which were proposed to incorporate negation in logic programs. We concentrate on the prooftheoretic and modeltheoretic issues and the relationships between them.
Logic Programming and Knowledge Representation
 Journal of Logic Programming
, 1994
"... In this paper, we review recent work aimed at the application of declarative logic programming to knowledge representation in artificial intelligence. We consider exten sions of the language of definite logic programs by classical (strong) negation, disjunc tion, and some modal operators and sh ..."
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Cited by 224 (21 self)
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In this paper, we review recent work aimed at the application of declarative logic programming to knowledge representation in artificial intelligence. We consider exten sions of the language of definite logic programs by classical (strong) negation, disjunc tion, and some modal operators and show how each of the added features extends the representational power of the language.
Answer Sets in General Nonmonotonic Reasoning (Preliminary Report)
, 1992
"... Languages of declarative logic programming differ from other modal nonmonotonic formalisms by lack of syntactic uniformity. For instance, negation as failure can be used in the body of a rule, but not in the head; in disjunctive programs, disjunction is used in the head of a rule, but not in the bod ..."
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Cited by 103 (9 self)
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Languages of declarative logic programming differ from other modal nonmonotonic formalisms by lack of syntactic uniformity. For instance, negation as failure can be used in the body of a rule, but not in the head; in disjunctive programs, disjunction is used in the head of a rule, but not in the body; in extended programs, negation as failure can be used on top of classical negation, but not the other way around. We argue that this lack of uniformity should not be viewed as a distinguishing feature of logic programming in general. As a starting point, we take a translation from the language of disjunctive programs with negation as failure and classical negation into MBNFthe logic of minimal belief and negation as failure. A class of theories based on this logic is defined, theories with protected literals, which is syntactically uniform and contains the translations of all programs. We show that theories with protected literals have a semantics similar to the answer set semantics us...
Reasoning about Effects of Concurrent Actions
, 1993
"... this paper we extend the language A and its translation to allow reasoning about the effects of concurrent actions. The logic programming formalization of situation calculus with concurrent actions presented in the paper is of independent interest and may serve as a test bed for the investigation of ..."
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Cited by 42 (12 self)
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this paper we extend the language A and its translation to allow reasoning about the effects of concurrent actions. The logic programming formalization of situation calculus with concurrent actions presented in the paper is of independent interest and may serve as a test bed for the investigation of various transformations and logic programming inference mechanisms. ! 1. INTRODUCTION
An Overview of Nonmonotonic Reasoning and Logic Programming
 Journal of Logic Programming, Special Issue
, 1993
"... The focus of this paper is nonmonotonic reasoning as it relates to logic programming. I discuss the prehistory of nonmonotonic reasoning starting from approximately 1958. I then review the research that has been accomplished in the areas of circumscription, default theory, modal theories and logic ..."
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Cited by 27 (2 self)
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The focus of this paper is nonmonotonic reasoning as it relates to logic programming. I discuss the prehistory of nonmonotonic reasoning starting from approximately 1958. I then review the research that has been accomplished in the areas of circumscription, default theory, modal theories and logic programming. The overview includes the major results developed including complexity results that are known about the various theories. I then provide a summary which includes an assessment of the field and what must be done to further research in nonmonotonic reasoning and logic programming. 1 Introduction Classical logic has played a major role in computer science. It has been an important tool both for the development of architecture and of software. Logicians have contended that reasoning, as performed by humans, is also amenable to analysis using classical logic. However, workers in the field of artificial 1 This paper is an updated version of an invited Banquet Address, First Interna...
Restricted Monotonicity
 In Proc. AAAI93
, 1993
"... A knowledge representation problem can be sometimes viewed as an element of a family of problems, with parameters corresponding to possible assumptions about the domain under consideration. When additional assumptions are made, the class of domains that are being described becomes smaller, so that t ..."
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Cited by 26 (4 self)
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A knowledge representation problem can be sometimes viewed as an element of a family of problems, with parameters corresponding to possible assumptions about the domain under consideration. When additional assumptions are made, the class of domains that are being described becomes smaller, so that the class of conclusions that are true in all the domains becomes larger. As a result, a satisfactory solution to a parametric knowledge representation problem on the basis of some nonmonotonic formalism can be expected to have a certain formal property, that we call restricted monotonicity. We argue that it is important to recognize parametric knowledge representation problems and to verify restricted monotonicity for their proposed solutions. Introduction This paper is about the methodology of representing knowledge in nonmonotonic formalisms. A knowledge representation problem can be sometimes viewed as an element of a family of problems, with parameters corresponding to possible assumpt...
Two Components of An Action Language
 Annals of Math and AI
, 1996
"... Some of the recent work on representing action makes use of highlevel action languages. In this paper we show that an action language can be represented as the sum of two distinct parts: an "action description language" and an "action query language." A set of propositions in an action description ..."
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Cited by 19 (5 self)
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Some of the recent work on representing action makes use of highlevel action languages. In this paper we show that an action language can be represented as the sum of two distinct parts: an "action description language" and an "action query language." A set of propositions in an action description language describes the effects of actions on states. Mathematically, it defines a transition system of the kind familiar from the theory of finite automata. An action query language serves for expressing properties of paths in a given transition system. We define the general concepts of a transition system, of an action description language and of an action query language, give a series of examples of languages of both kinds, and show how to combine a description language and a query language into one. This construction makes it possible to design the two components of an action language independently, which leads to the simplification and clarification of the theory of actions. 1 Introducti...
A Unifying View for Logic Programming with NonMonotonic Reasoning
, 1997
"... We provide a simple formulation of a framework where some extensions of logic programming with nonmonotonic reasoning are treated uniformly, namely two kinds of negation and abduction. The resulting semantics is purely modeltheoretic, and gives meaning to any noncontradictory abductive logic pr ..."
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Cited by 18 (11 self)
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We provide a simple formulation of a framework where some extensions of logic programming with nonmonotonic reasoning are treated uniformly, namely two kinds of negation and abduction. The resulting semantics is purely modeltheoretic, and gives meaning to any noncontradictory abductive logic program. Moreover, it embeds and generalizes some existing semantics which deal with negation and abduction. The framework is equipped with a correct topdown proof procedure. Keywords: Programming languages, Logic programming, Nonmonotonic reasoning, Negation, Abduction. Dipartimento di Informatica, Universit`a di Pisa, Corso Italia 40, Pisa, Italy. brogi@di.unipi.it y DEIS, Universit`a di Bologna, Viale Risorgimento 2, 40136 Bologna, Italy. elamma@deis.unibo.it z Dipartimento di Informatica, Universit`a di Pisa, Corso Italia 40, Pisa, Italy. paolo@di.unipi.it x DEIS, Universit`a di Ferrara, Via Saragat, 41100 Ferrara, Italy. pmello@ing.unife.it Contents 1 Introduction and Motiva...
Temporal Representation and Reasoning in Artificial Intelligence: Issues and Approaches
, 2002
"... this paper, we survey a wide range of research in temporal representation and reasoning, without committing ourselves to the point of view of any speci c application ..."
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Cited by 15 (1 self)
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this paper, we survey a wide range of research in temporal representation and reasoning, without committing ourselves to the point of view of any speci c application