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119
PolynomialTime Algorithms for Prime Factorization and Discrete Logarithms on a Quantum Computer
 SIAM J. on Computing
, 1997
"... A digital computer is generally believed to be an efficient universal computing device; that is, it is believed able to simulate any physical computing device with an increase in computation time by at most a polynomial factor. This may not be true when quantum mechanics is taken into consideration. ..."
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Cited by 895 (2 self)
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A digital computer is generally believed to be an efficient universal computing device; that is, it is believed able to simulate any physical computing device with an increase in computation time by at most a polynomial factor. This may not be true when quantum mechanics is taken into consideration. This paper considers factoring integers and finding discrete logarithms, two problems which are generally thought to be hard on a classical computer and which have been used as the basis of several proposed cryptosystems. Efficient randomized algorithms are given for these two problems on a hypothetical quantum computer. These algorithms take a number of steps polynomial in the input size, e.g., the number of digits of the integer to be factored.
Simulating Physics with Computers
 SIAM Journal on Computing
, 1982
"... A digital computer is generally believed to be an efficient universal computing device; that is, it is believed able to simulate any physical computing device with an increase in computation time of at most a polynomial factor. This may not be true when quantum mechanics is taken into consideration. ..."
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Cited by 405 (1 self)
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A digital computer is generally believed to be an efficient universal computing device; that is, it is believed able to simulate any physical computing device with an increase in computation time of at most a polynomial factor. This may not be true when quantum mechanics is taken into consideration. This paper considers factoring integers and finding discrete logarithms, two problems which are generally thought to be hard on a classical computer and have been used as the basis of several proposed cryptosystems. Efficient randomized algorithms are given for these two problems on a hypothetical quantum computer. These algorithms take a number of steps polynomial in the input size, e.g., the number of digits of the integer to be factored. AMS subject classifications: 82P10, 11Y05, 68Q10. 1 Introduction One of the first results in the mathematics of computation, which underlies the subsequent development of much of theoretical computer science, was the distinction between computable and ...
Elementary Gates for Quantum Computation
, 1995
"... We show that a set of gates that consists of all onebit quantum gates (U(2)) and the twobit exclusiveor gate (that maps Boolean values (x,y) to (x,x⊕y)) is universal in the sense that all unitary operations on arbitrarily many bits n (U(2 n)) can be expressed as compositions of these gates. We in ..."
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Cited by 201 (11 self)
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We show that a set of gates that consists of all onebit quantum gates (U(2)) and the twobit exclusiveor gate (that maps Boolean values (x,y) to (x,x⊕y)) is universal in the sense that all unitary operations on arbitrarily many bits n (U(2 n)) can be expressed as compositions of these gates. We investigate the number of the above gates required to implement other gates, such as generalized DeutschToffoli gates, that apply a specific U(2) transformation to one input bit if and only if the logical AND of all remaining input bits is satisfied. These gates play a central role in many proposed constructions of quantum computational networks. We derive upper and lower bounds on the exact number of elementary gates required to build up a variety of two and threebit quantum gates, the asymptotic number required for nbit DeutschToffoli gates, and make some observations about the number required for arbitrary nbit unitary operations.
TwoBit Gates Are Universal for Quantum Computation
, 1995
"... A proof is given, which relies on the commutator algebra of the unitary Lie groups, that quantum gates operating on just two bits at a time are sufficient to construct a general quantum circuit. The best previous result had shown the universality of threebit gates, by analogy to the universality of ..."
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Cited by 146 (10 self)
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A proof is given, which relies on the commutator algebra of the unitary Lie groups, that quantum gates operating on just two bits at a time are sufficient to construct a general quantum circuit. The best previous result had shown the universality of threebit gates, by analogy to the universality of the Toffoli threebit gate of classical reversible computing. Twobit quantum gates may be implemented by magnetic resonance operations applied to a pair of electronic or nuclear spins. A "gearbox quantum computer" proposed here, based on the principles of atomic force microscopy, would permit the operation of such twobit gates in a physical system with very long phase breaking (i.e., quantum phase coherence) times. Simpler versions of the gearbox computer could be used to do experiments on EinsteinPodolskyRosen states and related entangled quantum states.
Universal Computation and Other Capabilities of Hybrid and Continuous Dynamical Systems
, 1995
"... We explore the simulation and computational capabilities of hybrid and continuous dynamical systems. The continuous dynamical systems considered are ordinary differential equations (ODEs). For hybrid systems we concentrate on models that combine ODEs and discrete dynamics (e.g., finite automata). We ..."
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Cited by 69 (3 self)
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We explore the simulation and computational capabilities of hybrid and continuous dynamical systems. The continuous dynamical systems considered are ordinary differential equations (ODEs). For hybrid systems we concentrate on models that combine ODEs and discrete dynamics (e.g., finite automata). We review and compare four such models from the literature. Notions of simulation of a discrete dynamical system by a continuous one are developed. We show that hybrid systems whose equations can describe a precise binary timing pulse (exact clock) can simulate arbitrary reversible discrete dynamical systems defined on closed subsets of R n . The simulations require continuous ODEs in R 2n with the exact clock as input. All four hybrid systems models studied here can implement exact clocks. We also prove that any discrete dynamical system in Z n can be simulated by continuous ODEs in R 2n+1 . We use this to show that smooth ODEs in R 3 can simulate arbitrary Turing machines, and henc...
Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy: An experimentally accessible paradigm for quantum computing
 In Proceedings of the Fourth Workshop on Physics and Computation. New England Complex Systems Institute
, 1996
"... We present experimental results which demonstrate that nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy is capable of efficiently emulating many of the capabilities of quantum computers, including unitary evolution and coherent superpositions, but without attendant wavefunction collapse. This emulation is m ..."
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Cited by 55 (7 self)
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We present experimental results which demonstrate that nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy is capable of efficiently emulating many of the capabilities of quantum computers, including unitary evolution and coherent superpositions, but without attendant wavefunction collapse. This emulation is made possible by two facts. The first is that the spin active nuclei in each molecule of a liquid sample are largely isolated from the spins in all other molecules, so that each molecule is effectively an independent quantum computer. The second is the existence of a manifold of statistical spin states, called pseudopure states, whose transformation properties are identical to those of true pure states. These facts enable us to operate on coherent superpositions over the spins in each molecule using full quantum parallelism, and to combine the results into deterministic macroscopic observables via thermodynamic averaging. We call a device based on these principles an ensemble quantum computer. Our results show that it is indeed possible to prepare a pseudopure state
A functional quantum programming language
 In: Proceedings of the 20th Annual IEEE Symposium on Logic in Computer Science
, 2005
"... This thesis introduces the language QML, a functional language for quantum computations on finite types. QML exhibits quantum data and control structures, and integrates reversible and irreversible quantum computations. The design of QML is guided by the categorical semantics: QML programs are inte ..."
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Cited by 47 (12 self)
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This thesis introduces the language QML, a functional language for quantum computations on finite types. QML exhibits quantum data and control structures, and integrates reversible and irreversible quantum computations. The design of QML is guided by the categorical semantics: QML programs are interpreted by morphisms in the category FQC of finite quantum computations, which provides a constructive operational semantics of irreversible quantum computations, realisable as quantum circuits. The quantum circuit model is also given a formal categorical definition via the category FQC. QML integrates reversible and irreversible quantum computations in one language, using first order strict linear logic to make weakenings, which may lead to the collapse of the quantum wavefunction, explicit. Strict programs are free from measurement, and hence preserve superpositions and entanglement. A denotational semantics of QML programs is presented, which maps QML terms
Evolving SelfReference: Matter, Symbols, And Semantic Closure
 Communication and Cognition  Artificial Intelligence
, 1995
"... A theory of emergent or openended evolution that is consistent with the epistemological foundations of physical theory and the logic of selfreference requires complementary descriptions of the material and symbolic aspects of events. The mattersymbol complementarity is explained in terms of the l ..."
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Cited by 36 (2 self)
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A theory of emergent or openended evolution that is consistent with the epistemological foundations of physical theory and the logic of selfreference requires complementary descriptions of the material and symbolic aspects of events. The mattersymbol complementarity is explained in terms of the logic of selfreplication, and physical distinction of laws and initial conditions. Physical laws and natural selection are complementary models of events. Physical laws describe those invariant events over which organisms have no control. Evolution by natural selection is a theory of how organisms increase their control over events. A necessary semantic closure relation is defined relating the material and symbolic aspects of organisms capable of openended evolution.
CRYSTALLINE COMPUTATION
 CHAPTER 18 OF FEYNMAN AND COMPUTATION (A. HEY, ED.)
, 1999
"... Discrete lattice systems have had a long and productive history in physics. Examples range from exact theoretical models studied in statistical mechanics to approximate numerical treatments of continuum models. There has, however, been relatively little attention paid to exact lattice models which o ..."
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Cited by 28 (7 self)
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Discrete lattice systems have had a long and productive history in physics. Examples range from exact theoretical models studied in statistical mechanics to approximate numerical treatments of continuum models. There has, however, been relatively little attention paid to exact lattice models which obey an invertible dynamics: from any state of the dynamical system you can infer the previous state. This kind of microscopic reversibility is an important property of all microscopic physical dynamics. Invertible lattice systems become even more physically realistic if we impose locality of interaction and exact conservation laws. In fact, some invertible and momentum conserving lattice dynamics—in which discrete particles hop between neighboring lattice sites at discrete times—accurately reproduce hydrodynamics in the macroscopic limit. These kinds of discrete systems not only provide an intriguing informationdynamics approach to modeling macroscopic physics, but they may also be supremely practical. Exactly the same properties that make these models physically realistic also make them efficiently realizable. Algorithms that incorporate constraints such as locality of interaction and invertibility can be run on microscopic physical hardware that shares these constraints. Such hardware can, in principle, achieve a higher density and rate of computation than any other kind of computer. Thus it is interesting to construct discrete lattice dynamics which are more physicslike both in order to capture more of the richness of physical dynamics in informational models, and in order to improve our ability to harness physics for computation. In this chapter, we discuss techniques for bringing discrete lattice dynamics closer to physics, and some of the interesting consequences of doing so.
Logic Synthesis of Reversible Wave Cascades
, 2002
"... A circuit is reversible if it maps each input vector into a unique output vector, and vice versa. Reversible circuits lead to powerefficient CMOS implementations. Reversible logic synthesis may be applicable to optical and quantum computing. Minimizing garbage bits is the main challenge in reversib ..."
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Cited by 27 (6 self)
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A circuit is reversible if it maps each input vector into a unique output vector, and vice versa. Reversible circuits lead to powerefficient CMOS implementations. Reversible logic synthesis may be applicable to optical and quantum computing. Minimizing garbage bits is the main challenge in reversible logic synthesis.