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112
Minimizing Conflicts: A Heuristic Repair Method for ConstraintSatisfaction and Scheduling Problems
 J. ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE RESEARCH
, 1993
"... This paper describes a simple heuristic approach to solving largescale constraint satisfaction and scheduling problems. In this approach one starts with an inconsistent assignment for a set of variables and searches through the space of possible repairs. The search can be guided by a valueorder ..."
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Cited by 398 (6 self)
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This paper describes a simple heuristic approach to solving largescale constraint satisfaction and scheduling problems. In this approach one starts with an inconsistent assignment for a set of variables and searches through the space of possible repairs. The search can be guided by a valueordering heuristic, the minconflicts heuristic, that attempts to minimize the number of constraint violations after each step. The heuristic can be used with a variety of different search strategies. We demonstrate empirically that on the nqueens problem, a technique based on this approach performs orders of magnitude better than traditional backtracking techniques. We also describe a scheduling application where the approach has been used successfully. A theoretical analysis is presented both to explain why this method works well on certain types of problems and to predict when it is likely to be most effective.
A Survey of Automated Timetabling
 ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE REVIEW
, 1999
"... The timetabling problem consists in fixing a sequence of meetings between teachers and students in a prefixed period of time (typically a week), satisfying a set of constraints of various types. A large number of variants of the timetabling problem have been proposed in the literature, which diff ..."
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Cited by 143 (13 self)
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The timetabling problem consists in fixing a sequence of meetings between teachers and students in a prefixed period of time (typically a week), satisfying a set of constraints of various types. A large number of variants of the timetabling problem have been proposed in the literature, which differ from each other based on the type of institution involved (university or high school) and the type of constraints. This problem, that has been traditionally considered in the operational research field, has recently been tackled with techniques belonging also to artificial intelligence (e.g. genetic algorithms, tabu search, simulated annealing, and constraint satisfaction). In this paper, we survey the various formulations of the problem, and the techniques and algorithms used for its solution.
Hybrid Evolutionary Algorithms for Graph Coloring
, 1998
"... A recent and very promising approach for combinatorial optimization is to embed local search into the framework of evolutionary algorithms. In this paper, we present such hybrid algorithms for the graph coloring problem. These algorithms combine a new class of highly specialized crossover operators ..."
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Cited by 105 (14 self)
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A recent and very promising approach for combinatorial optimization is to embed local search into the framework of evolutionary algorithms. In this paper, we present such hybrid algorithms for the graph coloring problem. These algorithms combine a new class of highly specialized crossover operators and a wellknown tabu search algorithm. Experiments of such a hybrid algorithm are carried out on large DIMACS Challenge benchmark graphs. Results prove very competitive with and even better than those of stateoftheart algorithms. Analysis of the behavior of the algorithm sheds light on ways to further improvement. Keywords: Graph coloring, solution recombination, tabu search, combinatorial optimization. 1 Introduction A recent and very promising approach for combinatorial optimization is to embed local search into the framework of population based evolutionary algorithms, leading to hybrid evolutionary algorithms (HEA). Such an algorithm is essentially based on two key elements: an eff...
Tabu Search: A Tutorial
 Interfaces
, 1990
"... Tabu search is a "higher level " heuristic procedure for solving optimization problems, designed to guide other methods (or their component processes) to escape the trap of local optimality. Tabu search has obtained optimal and near optimal solutions to a wide variety of classical and practical prob ..."
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Cited by 91 (2 self)
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Tabu search is a "higher level " heuristic procedure for solving optimization problems, designed to guide other methods (or their component processes) to escape the trap of local optimality. Tabu search has obtained optimal and near optimal solutions to a wide variety of classical and practical problems in applications ranging from scheduling to telecommunications and from character recognition to neural networks. It uses flexible structures memory (to permit search information to be exploited more thoroughly than by rigid memory systems or memoryless systems), conditions for strategically constraining and freeing the search process (embodied in tabu restrictions and aspiration criteria), and memory functions of varying time spans for intensifying and diversifying the search (reinforcing attributes historically found good and driving the search into new regions). Tabu search can be integrated with branchandbound and cutting plane procedures, and it has the ability to start with a simple implementation that can be upgraded over time to incorporate more advanced or specialized elements. T abu search is a metaheuristic that can to prevent them from becoming trapped at be superimposed on other procedures locally optimal solutions. The method can
Genetic Hybrids for the Quadratic Assignment Problem
 DIMACS Series in Mathematics and Theoretical Computer Science
, 1993
"... . A new hybrid procedure that combines genetic operators to existing heuristics is proposed to solve the Quadratic Assignment Problem (QAP). Genetic operators are found to improve the performance of both local search and tabu search. Some guidelines are also given to design good hybrid schemes. Thes ..."
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Cited by 89 (0 self)
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. A new hybrid procedure that combines genetic operators to existing heuristics is proposed to solve the Quadratic Assignment Problem (QAP). Genetic operators are found to improve the performance of both local search and tabu search. Some guidelines are also given to design good hybrid schemes. These hybrid algorithms are then used to improve on the best known solutions of many test problems in the literature. 1. Introduction The quadratic assignment problem (QAP) can be stated as: min OE2P (n) n X i=1 n X j=1 a ij b OE(i)OE(j) ; where A = (a ij ) and B = (b kl ) are two n \Theta n matrices and P (n) is the set of all permutations of f1; :::; ng. Matrix A is often referred to as a distance matrix between sites, and B as a flow matrix between objects. In most cases, the matrices A and B are symmetrical with a null diagonal. A permutation may then be interpreted as an assignment of objects to sites with a quadratic cost associated to it. There are many applications that can be fo...
Minimuminterference channel assignment in multiradio wireless mesh networks
 IN SECON
, 2006
"... In this paper, we consider multihop wireless mesh networks, where each router node is equipped with multiple radio interfaces and multiple channels are available for communication. We address the problem of assigning channels to communication links in the network with the objective of minimizing ov ..."
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Cited by 55 (2 self)
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In this paper, we consider multihop wireless mesh networks, where each router node is equipped with multiple radio interfaces and multiple channels are available for communication. We address the problem of assigning channels to communication links in the network with the objective of minimizing overall network interference. Since the number of radios on any node can be less than the number of available channels, the channel assignment must obey the constraint that the number of different channels assigned to the links incident on any node is atmost the number of radio interfaces on that node. The above optimization problem is known to be NPhard. We design centralized and distributed algorithms for the above channel assignment problem. To evaluate the quality of the solutions obtained by our algorithms, we develop a semidefinite program formulation of our optimization problem to obtain a lower bound on overall network interference. Empirical evaluations on randomly generated network graphs show that our algorithms perform close to the above established lower bound, with the difference diminishing rapidly with increase in number of radios. Also, detailed ns2 simulation studies demonstrate the performance potential of our channel assignment algorithms in 802.11based multiradio mesh networks.
Tabu Search Techniques for Examination Timetabling
, 2000
"... this paper we present an ongoing research on the development of a solution algorithm for Examination Timetabling based on tabu search (TS) [8]. The algorithm makes use of several features imported from the literature on the Graph Colouring problem. We perform preliminary experiments of the algorithm ..."
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Cited by 51 (5 self)
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this paper we present an ongoing research on the development of a solution algorithm for Examination Timetabling based on tabu search (TS) [8]. The algorithm makes use of several features imported from the literature on the Graph Colouring problem. We perform preliminary experiments of the algorithm on the popular Carter's benchmarks [5], and we compared our results with Carter's ones.
A New Genetic Local Search Algorithm for Graph Coloring
 In Parallel Problem Solving from Nature  PPSN V, 5th International Conference, volume 1498 of LNCS
, 1998
"... . This paper presents a new genetic local search algorithm for the graph coloring problem. The algorithm combines an original crossover based on the notion of union of independent sets and a powerful local search operator (tabu search). This new hybrid algorithm allows us to improve on the best know ..."
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Cited by 44 (9 self)
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. This paper presents a new genetic local search algorithm for the graph coloring problem. The algorithm combines an original crossover based on the notion of union of independent sets and a powerful local search operator (tabu search). This new hybrid algorithm allows us to improve on the best known results of some large instances of the famous Dimacs benchmarks. 1 Introduction The graph coloring problem is one of the most studied NPhard problems and can be defined informally as follows. Given an undirected graph, one wishes to color with a minimal number of colors the nodes of the graph in such a way that two colors assigned to two adjacent nodes must be different. Graph coloring has many practical applications such as timetabling and resource assignment. Given the NPcompleteness of the coloring problem, it becomes natural to design heuristic methods. Indeed many heuristic methods have been developed, constructive methods in the 60's and 70's [1, 12], local search metaheuristics ...
Exploring the kcolorable Landscape with Iterated Greedy
 Dimacs Series in Discrete Mathematics and Theoretical Computer Science
, 1995
"... . Many heuristic algorithms have been proposed for graph coloring. The simplest is perhaps the greedy algorithm. Many variations have been proposed for this algorithm at various levels of sophistication, but it is generally assumed that the coloring will occur in a single attempt. We note that if a ..."
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Cited by 43 (3 self)
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. Many heuristic algorithms have been proposed for graph coloring. The simplest is perhaps the greedy algorithm. Many variations have been proposed for this algorithm at various levels of sophistication, but it is generally assumed that the coloring will occur in a single attempt. We note that if a new permutation of the vertices is chosen which respects the independent sets of a previous coloring, then applying the greedy algorithm will result in a new coloring in which the number of colors used does not increase, yet may decrease. We introduce several heuristics for generating new permutations that are fast when implemented and effective in reducing the coloring number. The resulting Iterated Greedy algorithm(IG) can obtain colorings in the range 100 to 103 on graphs in G 1000; 1 2 . More interestingly, it can optimally color kcolorable graphs with k up to 60 and n = 1000. We couple this algorithm with several other coloring algorithms, including a modified TABU search, and one t...
An evolutionary tabu search algorithm and the NHL scheduling problem
 INFOR
, 1995
"... We present in this paper a new evolutionary procedure for solving general optimization problems that combines efficiently the mechanisms of genetic algorithms and tabu search. In order to explore the solution space properly interaction phases are interspersed with periods of optimization in the algo ..."
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Cited by 35 (0 self)
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We present in this paper a new evolutionary procedure for solving general optimization problems that combines efficiently the mechanisms of genetic algorithms and tabu search. In order to explore the solution space properly interaction phases are interspersed with periods of optimization in the algorithm. An adaptation of this search principle to the National Hockey League (NHL) problem is discussed. The hybrid method developed in this paper is well suited for Open Shop Scheduling problems (OSSP). The results obtained appear to be quite satisfactory.