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Modeling and Rendering Architecture from Photographs
, 1999
"... Contents Thissectionofthecoursenotesisorganizedasfollows: 1.Introductorymaterialforthissection.Thisincludesabriefoverviewofrelatedandcomplimentarymaterialtophotogrammetricmodeling, suchasstructurefrommotion,stereocorrespondence,shapefrom silhouettes,cameracalibration,laserscanning,andimagebasedre ..."
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Cited by 888 (18 self)
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Contents Thissectionofthecoursenotesisorganizedasfollows: 1.Introductorymaterialforthissection.Thisincludesabriefoverviewofrelatedandcomplimentarymaterialtophotogrammetricmodeling, suchasstructurefrommotion,stereocorrespondence,shapefrom silhouettes,cameracalibration,laserscanning,andimagebasedrendering. 2.Abibliographyofrelatedpapers. 3.Areprintof: PaulE.Debevec,CamilloJ.Taylor,andJitendraMalik.ModelingandRenderingArchitecturefrom Photographs.InSIGGRAPH96,August1996,pp.1120. 4.NotesonphotogrammetricrecoveryofarchesandsurfacesofrevolutionwrittenbyGeorgeBorshukov. 5.Copiesoftheslidesusedforthepresentation. Moreinformationcanbefoundin[10],[5],and[13],availableat: http://www.cs.berkeley.edu/debevec/Thesis 1 Introduction Thecreationofthreedimensionalmodelsofexistingarchitecturalsceneswiththeaidofthecomputerhas beencommonplaceforsometime,andtheresultingmodelshavebeenbothentertainingvirtualenvironments aswellasvaluablevisualizationtools.LargescaleeffortshavepushedthecampusesofI
A flexible new technique for camera calibration
 IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence
"... (updated on Aug. 10, 2002; a typo in Appendix B) (last updated on Aug. 13, 2008; a typo in Section 3.3) ..."
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Cited by 824 (12 self)
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(updated on Aug. 10, 2002; a typo in Appendix B) (last updated on Aug. 13, 2008; a typo in Section 3.3)
Camera SelfCalibration: Theory and Experiments
, 1992
"... . The problem of finding the internal orientation of a camera (camera calibration) is extremely important for practical applications. In this paper a complete method for calibrating a camera is presented. In contrast with existing methods it does not require a calibration object with a known 3D shap ..."
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Cited by 366 (29 self)
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. The problem of finding the internal orientation of a camera (camera calibration) is extremely important for practical applications. In this paper a complete method for calibrating a camera is presented. In contrast with existing methods it does not require a calibration object with a known 3D shape. The new method requires only point matches from image sequences. It is shown, using experiments with noisy data, that it is possible to calibrate a camera just by pointing it at the environment, selecting points of interest and then tracking them in the image as the camera moves. It is not necessary to know the camera motion. The camera calibration is computed in two steps. In the first step the epipolar transformation is found. Two methods for obtaining the epipoles are discussed, one due to Sturm is based on projective invariants, the other is based on a generalisation of the essential matrix. The second step of the computation uses the socalled Kruppa equations which link the epipolar...
Flexible camera calibration by viewing a plane from unknown orientations
 in ICCV
, 1999
"... We propose a flexible new technique to easily calibrate a camera. It only requires the camera to observe a planar pattern shown at a few (at least two) different orientations. Either the camera or the planar pattern can be freely moved. The motion need not be known. Radial lens distortion is modeled ..."
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Cited by 310 (6 self)
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We propose a flexible new technique to easily calibrate a camera. It only requires the camera to observe a planar pattern shown at a few (at least two) different orientations. Either the camera or the planar pattern can be freely moved. The motion need not be known. Radial lens distortion is modeled. The proposed procedure consists of a closedform solution, followed by a nonlinear refinement based on the maximum likelihood criterion. Both computer simulation and real data have been used to test the proposed technique, and very good results have been obtained. Compared with classical techniques which use expensive equipment such as two or three orthogonal planes, the proposed technique is easy to use and flexible. It advances 3D computer vision one step from laboratory environments to real world use. The corresponding software is available from the authorâ€™s Web page.
The Fundamental matrix: theory, algorithms, and stability analysis
 International Journal of Computer Vision
, 1995
"... In this paper we analyze in some detail the geometry of a pair of cameras, i.e. a stereo rig. Contrarily to what has been done in the past and is still done currently, for example in stereo or motion analysis, we do not assume that the intrinsic parameters of the cameras are known (coordinates of th ..."
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Cited by 233 (14 self)
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In this paper we analyze in some detail the geometry of a pair of cameras, i.e. a stereo rig. Contrarily to what has been done in the past and is still done currently, for example in stereo or motion analysis, we do not assume that the intrinsic parameters of the cameras are known (coordinates of the principal points, pixels aspect ratio and focal lengths). This is important for two reasons. First, it is more realistic in applications where these parameters may vary according to the task (active vision). Second, the general case considered here, captures all the relevant information that is necessary for establishing correspondences between two pairs of images. This information is fundamentally projective and is hidden in a confusing manner in the commonly used formalism of the Essential matrix introduced by LonguetHiggins [40]. This paper clarifies the projective nature of the correspondence problem in stereo and shows that the epipolar geometry can be summarized in one 3 \Theta 3 ma...
Canonic Representations for the Geometries of Multiple Projective Views
 Computer Vision and Image Understanding
, 1994
"... This work is in the context of motion and stereo analysis. It presents a new uni ed representation which will be useful when dealing with multiple views in the case of uncalibrated cameras. Several levels of information might be considered, depending on the availability of information. Among other t ..."
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Cited by 180 (8 self)
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This work is in the context of motion and stereo analysis. It presents a new uni ed representation which will be useful when dealing with multiple views in the case of uncalibrated cameras. Several levels of information might be considered, depending on the availability of information. Among other things, an algebraic description of the epipolar geometry of N views is introduced, as well as a framework for camera selfcalibration, calibration updating, and structure from motion in an image sequence taken by a camera which is zooming and moving at the same time. We show how a special decomposition of a set of two or three general projection matrices, called canonical enables us to build geometric descriptions for a system of cameras which are invariant with respect to a given group of transformations. These representations are minimal and capture completely the properties of each level of description considered: Euclidean (in the context of calibration, and in the context of structure from motion, which we distinguish clearly), a ne, and projective, that we also relate to each other. In the last case, a new decomposition of the wellknown fundamental matrix is obtained. Dependencies, which appear when three or more views are available, are studied in the context of the canonic decomposition, and new composition formulas are established. The theory is illustrated by tutorial examples with real images.
ObjectCentered Surface Reconstruction: Combining MultiImage Stereo and Shading
 International Journal of Computer Vision
, 1995
"... Our goal is to reconstruct both the shape and reflectance properties of surfaces from multiple images. We argue that an objectcentered representation is most appropriate for this purpose because it naturally accommodates multiple sources of data, multiple images (including motion sequences of a rig ..."
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Cited by 120 (19 self)
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Our goal is to reconstruct both the shape and reflectance properties of surfaces from multiple images. We argue that an objectcentered representation is most appropriate for this purpose because it naturally accommodates multiple sources of data, multiple images (including motion sequences of a rigid object), and selfocclusions. We then present a specific objectcentered reconstruction method and its implementation. The method begins with an initial estimate of surface shape provided, for example, by triangulating the result of conventional stereo. The surface shape and reflectance properties are then iteratively adjusted to minimize an objective function that combines information from multiple input images. The objective function is a weighted sum of stereo, shading, and smoothness components, where the weight varies over the surface. For example, the stereo component is weighted more strongly where the surface projects onto highly textured areas in the images, and less strongly othe...
Fast and Globally Convergent Pose Estimation From Video Images
, 1998
"... Determining the rigid transformation relating 2D images to known 3D geometry is a classical problem in photogrammetry and computer vision. Heretofore, the best methods for solving the problem have relied on iterative optimization methods which cannot be proven to converge and/or which do not effecti ..."
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Cited by 109 (4 self)
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Determining the rigid transformation relating 2D images to known 3D geometry is a classical problem in photogrammetry and computer vision. Heretofore, the best methods for solving the problem have relied on iterative optimization methods which cannot be proven to converge and/or which do not effectively account for the orthonormal structure of rotation matrices. We show that the pose estimation problem can be formulated as that of minimizing an error metric based on collinearity in object (as opposed to image) space. Using object space collinearity error, we derive an iterative algorithm which directly computes orthogonal rotation matrices and which is globally convergent. Experimentally, we show that the method is computationally efficient, that it is no less accurate than the best currently employed optimization methods, and that it outperforms all tested methods in robustness to outliers. ChienPing Lu, Silicon Graphics Inc. cplu@engr.sgi.com y Greg Hager, Department of Computer...
SelfCalibration of a Moving Camera From Point Correspondences and Fundamental Matrices
, 1997
"... . We address the problem of estimating threedimensional motion, and structure from motion with an uncalibrated moving camera. We show that point correspondences between three images, and the fundamental matrices computed from these point correspondences, are sufficient to recover the internal orien ..."
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Cited by 99 (2 self)
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. We address the problem of estimating threedimensional motion, and structure from motion with an uncalibrated moving camera. We show that point correspondences between three images, and the fundamental matrices computed from these point correspondences, are sufficient to recover the internal orientation of the camera (its calibration), the motion parameters, and to compute coherent perspective projection matrices which enable us to reconstruct 3D structure up to a similarity. In contrast with other methods, no calibration object with a known 3D shape is needed, and no limitations are put upon the unknown motions to be performed or the parameters to be recovered, as long as they define a projective camera. The theory of the method, which is based on the constraint that the observed points are part of a static scene, thus allowing us to link the intrinsic parameters and the fundamental matrix via the absolute conic, is first detailed. Several algorithms are then presented, and their ...
On Determining The Fundamental Matrix: Analysis Of Different Methods and . . .
, 1993
"... The Fundamental matrix is a key concept when working with uncalibrated images and multiple viewpoints. It contains all the available geometric information and enables to recover the epipolar geometry from uncalibrated perspective views. This paper addresses the important problem of its robust determ ..."
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Cited by 91 (16 self)
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The Fundamental matrix is a key concept when working with uncalibrated images and multiple viewpoints. It contains all the available geometric information and enables to recover the epipolar geometry from uncalibrated perspective views. This paper addresses the important problem of its robust determination given a number of image point correspondences. We first define precisely this matrix, and show clearly how it is related to the epipolar geometry and to the Essential matrix introduced earlier by LonguetHiggins. In particular, we show that this matrix, defined up to a scale factor, must be of rank two. Different parametrizations for this matrix are then proposed to take into account these important constraints and linear and nonlinear criteria for its estimation are also considered. We then clearly show that the linear criterion is unable to express the rank and normalization constraints. Using the linear criterion leads definitely to the worst result in the determination of the Fu...