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79
The role of knowledge in discourse comprehension: A constructionintegration model
 Psychological Review
, 1988
"... In contrast to expectationbased, predictive views of discourse comprehension, a model is developed in which the initial processing is strictly bottomup. Word meanings are activated, propositions are formed, and inferences and elaborations are produced without regard to the discourse context. Howev ..."
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Cited by 449 (7 self)
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In contrast to expectationbased, predictive views of discourse comprehension, a model is developed in which the initial processing is strictly bottomup. Word meanings are activated, propositions are formed, and inferences and elaborations are produced without regard to the discourse context. However, a network of interrelated items is created in this manner, which can be integrated into a coherent structure through a spreading activation process. Data concerning the time course of word identification in a discourse context are examined. A simulation of arithmetic wordproblem understanding provides a plausible account for some wellknown phenomena in this area. Discourse comprehension, from the viewpoint of a computational theory, involves constructing a representation of a discourse upon which various computations can be performed, the outcomes of which are commonly taken as evidence for comprehension. Thus, after comprehending a text, one might reasonably expect to be able to answer questions about it, recall or summarize it, verify statements about it, paraphrase it, and SO on.
Transfer between isomorphic topics in algebra and physics. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Psychonomic
, 1985
"... Three experiments examined transfer between two isomorphic subdomains of algebra and physics. The two areas were arithmeticprogression problems in algebra and constantacceleration problems in physics. High school and college students who had learned one of these subtopics were presented with word ..."
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Cited by 91 (7 self)
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Three experiments examined transfer between two isomorphic subdomains of algebra and physics. The two areas were arithmeticprogression problems in algebra and constantacceleration problems in physics. High school and college students who had learned one of these subtopics were presented with word problems that used either content from the domain they had originally studied or content based on the unfamiliar but analogous domain. Students who had learned arithmetic progressions were very likely to spontaneously recognize that physics problems involving velocity and distance can be addressed using the same equations. Analysis of problemsolving protocols revealed that the recognition was immediate and that the solutions were a straightforward application of the algebraic method. Such recognition occurred even when the algebraic procedures were taught using example word problems all of which were drawn from a single content area (e.g., "money " problems). In contrast, students who had learned the physics topic almost never exhibited any detectable transfer to the isomorphic algebra problems. In the only case of transfer from physics to algebra, the process was analogical in nature. In addition, transfer from algebra to physics word problems was impaired if the physics transfer problems were embedded in a discussion of motion concepts. The results were interpreted in terms of
The real story behind story problems: Effects of representations on quantitative reasoning
 Journal of Learning Sciences
, 2004
"... This article explores how differences in problem representations change both the performance and underlying cognitive processes of beginning algebra students engaged in quantitative reasoning. Contrary to beliefs held by practitioners and researchers in mathematics education, students were more suc ..."
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Cited by 82 (23 self)
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This article explores how differences in problem representations change both the performance and underlying cognitive processes of beginning algebra students engaged in quantitative reasoning. Contrary to beliefs held by practitioners and researchers in mathematics education, students were more successful solving simple algebra story problems than solving mathematically equivalent equations. Contrary to some views of situated cognition, this result is not simply a consequence of situated world knowledge facilitating problemsolving performance, but rather a consequence of student difficulties with comprehending the formal symbolic representation of quantitative relations. We draw on analyses of students ’ strategies and errors as the basis for a cognitive process explanation of when, why, and how differences in problem representation affect problem solving. We conclude that differences in external representations can affect performance and learning when one representation is easier to comprehend than another or when one representation elicits more reliable and meaningful solution strategies than another. A commonly held belief about story problems at both the arithmetic and algebra levels is that they are notoriously difficult for students. Support for this belief can be seen among a variety of populations including the general public, textbook au
The Transfer of Abstract Principles Governing Complex Adaptive Systems
 COGNITIVE PSYCHOLOGY
, 2003
"... Four experiments explored participants' understanding of the abstract principles goincipl coinci simulatios o coulat adaptive systems. Experiments 1, 2, and 3shoBU better transfero abstract principlesacroc simulatioA that were relatively dissimilar, and that this e#ect was dueto participantswho ..."
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Cited by 62 (17 self)
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Four experiments explored participants' understanding of the abstract principles goincipl coinci simulatios o coulat adaptive systems. Experiments 1, 2, and 3shoBU better transfero abstract principlesacroc simulatioA that were relatively dissimilar, and that this e#ect was dueto participantswho perfocip relativelypolat o the initialsimulatioB In Experiment 4, participantsshoic better abstract understandingo asimulatio when it was depicted withcohA@CU rather than idealized graphical elements.Homents fo pom perfos.Aq/ the idealizedversio o the simulatio transferred betterto a newsimulatio gomulat by the same abstractioU The results are interpreted in termso cosAq6BPA between abstract and codAP)U coAP)U@/A o thesimulatio)/ Individualsproi toiv coivid coividual tendto oodAPU abstractioH whenconA)C@ pro)C@qUA o superficial similarities are salient.
An Evolutionary Approach to Constructing Effective Software Reuse Repositories
 ACM Transactions on Software Engineering and Methodology
, 1997
"... This article outlines an approach that avoids these problems by choosing a retrieval method that utilizes minimal repository structure to effectively support the process of finding software components. The approach is demonstrated through a pair of proofofconcept prototypes: PEEL, a tool to semiaut ..."
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Cited by 51 (3 self)
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This article outlines an approach that avoids these problems by choosing a retrieval method that utilizes minimal repository structure to effectively support the process of finding software components. The approach is demonstrated through a pair of proofofconcept prototypes: PEEL, a tool to semiautomatically identify reusable components, and CodeFinder, a retrieval system that compensates for the lack of explicit knowledge structures through a spreading activation retrieval process. CodeFinder also allows component representations to be modified while users are searching for information. This mechanism adapts to the changing nature of the information in the repository and incrementally improves the repository while people use it. The combination of these techniques holds potential for designing software repositories that minimize upfront costs, effectively support the search process, and evolve with an organization's changing needs.
Comprehension of arithmetic word problems: A comparison of successful and unsuccessful problem solvers
 JOURNAL OF EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY
, 1995
"... It is proposed that when solving an arithmetic word problem, unsuccessful problem solvers base their solution plan on numbers and keywords that they select from the problem (the direct translation strategy), whereas successful problem solvers construct a model of the situation described in the probl ..."
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Cited by 49 (0 self)
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It is proposed that when solving an arithmetic word problem, unsuccessful problem solvers base their solution plan on numbers and keywords that they select from the problem (the direct translation strategy), whereas successful problem solvers construct a model of the situation described in the problem and base their solution plan on this model (the problemmodel strategy). Evidence for this hypothesis was obtained in 2 experiments. In Experiment 1, the eye fixations of successful and unsuccessful problem solvers on words and numbers in the problem statement were compared. In Experiment 2, the degree to which successful and unsuccessful problem solvers remember the meaning and exact wording of word problems was examined.
Extending design environments to software architecture design
 Automated Software Engineering
, 1996
"... Domainoriented design environments are cooperative problemsolving systems that support designers in complex design tasks. In this paper we present the facilities and architecture of Argo, a domainoriented design environment for software architecture. Argo’s architecture is motivated by the desire ..."
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Cited by 47 (10 self)
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Domainoriented design environments are cooperative problemsolving systems that support designers in complex design tasks. In this paper we present the facilities and architecture of Argo, a domainoriented design environment for software architecture. Argo’s architecture is motivated by the desire to achieve reuse and extensibility of the design environment. It separates domainneutral code from domainoriented code, which is distributed among intelligent design materials as opposed to being centralized in the design environment. Argo’s facilities are motivated by the observed cognitive needs of designers. These facilities extend previous work in design environments to support reflectioninaction, opportunistic design, and comprehension and problemsolving. Keywords: Domainoriented design environments, critics, software architectures, architectural styles, humancomputer interaction, human cognitive skills.
Comprehension of arithmetic word problems: Evidence from students’ eye fixations
 Journal of Educational Psychology
, 1992
"... Students have difficulty solving arithmetic word problems containing a relational term that is inconsistent with the required arithmetic operation (e.g., containing the term less, yet requiring addition) rather than consistent. To investigate this consistency effect, students ' eye fixations we ..."
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Cited by 31 (1 self)
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Students have difficulty solving arithmetic word problems containing a relational term that is inconsistent with the required arithmetic operation (e.g., containing the term less, yet requiring addition) rather than consistent. To investigate this consistency effect, students ' eye fixations were recorded as they read arithmetic word problems on a computer monitor and stated a solution plan for each problem. As predicted, lowaccuracy students made more reversal errors on inconsistent than consistent problems, students took more time for inconsistent than consistent problems, this additional time was localized in the integration/planning stages of problem solving rather than in the initial reading of the problem, these responsetime patterns were obtained for highaccuracy but not for lowaccuracy students, and highaccuracy students required more rereadings of previously fixated words for inconsistent than for consistent problems. Arithmetic word problems, such as those presented in Table 1, can be viewed as assays of students ' problemsolving skills in elementary mathematics. Unfortunately, students perform particularly poorly on arithmetic word problems even when they perform well on corresponding arithmetic computation
Spatial Ability and G
, 1993
"... Spatial abilities have long been relegated to a secondary status in accounts of human intelligence. Tests of spatial abilities are viewed as measures of practical and mechanical abilities that are useful in predicting success in technical occupations, but not as measures of abstract reasoning abilit ..."
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Cited by 26 (0 self)
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Spatial abilities have long been relegated to a secondary status in accounts of human intelligence. Tests of spatial abilities are viewed as measures of practical and mechanical abilities that are useful in predicting success in technical occupations, but not as measures of abstract reasoning abilities (Smith, 1964). This conflicts with the important role afforded to spatial imagery in accounts of creative thinking (Shepard, 1978), and with the observed correlations between spatial tests and other measures of intelligence. In fact, Spearman (see Spearman & Wynn Jones, 1950) considered spatial tests merely as unreliable measures of G. Hierarchical factor analyses generally support Spearman's conclusion, especially for complex spatial tests. Such tests are primarily measures of G, secondarily measures of something taskspecific, and thirdly, measures of something that covaries uniquely with performance on other spatial tasks (Lohman, 1988). Simpler, speeded spatial tasks show lower G loadings, higher task specific loadings, and higher spatial factor loadings. In this paper, I first summarize and then attempt to explain these findings. The relationship between spatial task performance and G may reflect both statistical artifacts and psychological factors. Psychological factors include the attentional demands of maintaining and transforming images in working memory (Kyllonen & Christal, 1990) and the importance of mental models in reasoning (JohnsonLaird, 1983). Indeed, one can turn Spearman's conclusion around and with equal conviction conclude that measures of G are by and large unreliable measures of the ability to generate and coordinate different types of mental models in working memory. Evidence that supports and challenges such a conclusion is reviewed. Spatial Ability and G Page 3
The cognitive correlates of thirdgrade skills in arithmetic, algorithmic computation and arithmetic word problems
 Journal of Educational Psychology
, 2006
"... All intext references underlined in blue are linked to publications on ResearchGate, letting you access and read them immediately. ..."
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Cited by 25 (2 self)
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All intext references underlined in blue are linked to publications on ResearchGate, letting you access and read them immediately.