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33
Representing trees of higher degree
 ALGORITHMICA
, 2005
"... This paper focuses on space efficient representations of rooted trees that permit basic navigation in constant time. While most of the previous work has focused on binary trees, we turn our attention to trees of higher degree. We consider both cardinal trees (or kary tries), where each node has k ..."
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Cited by 96 (16 self)
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This paper focuses on space efficient representations of rooted trees that permit basic navigation in constant time. While most of the previous work has focused on binary trees, we turn our attention to trees of higher degree. We consider both cardinal trees (or kary tries), where each node has k slots, labelled {1,..., k}, each of which may have a reference to a child, and ordinal trees, where the children of each node are simply ordered. Our representations use a number of bits close to the information theoretic lower bound and support operations in constant time. For ordinal trees we support the operations of finding the degree, parent, ith child and subtree size. For cardinal trees the structure also supports finding the child labeled i of a given node apart from the ordinal tree operations. These representations also provide a mapping from the n nodes of the tree onto the integers {1,..., n}, giving unique labels to the nodes of the tree. This labelling can be used to store satellite information with the nodes efficiently.
Compact Representations of Separable Graphs
 In Proceedings of the Annual ACMSIAM Symposium on Discrete Algorithms
, 2003
"... We consider the problem of representing graphs compactly while supporting queries e#ciently. In particular we describe a data structure for representing nvertex unlabeled graphs that satisfy an O(n )separator theorem, c < 1. The structure uses O(n) bits, and supports adjacency and degree qu ..."
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Cited by 44 (11 self)
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We consider the problem of representing graphs compactly while supporting queries e#ciently. In particular we describe a data structure for representing nvertex unlabeled graphs that satisfy an O(n )separator theorem, c < 1. The structure uses O(n) bits, and supports adjacency and degree queries in constant time, and neighbor listing in constant time per neighbor. This generalizes previous results for graphs with constant genus, such as planar graphs.
An InformationTheoretic Upper Bound on Planar Graphs Using WellOrderly Maps
, 2011
"... This chapter deals with compressed coding of graphs. We focus on planar graphs, a widely studied class of graphs. A planar graph is a graph that admits an embedding in the plane without edge crossings. Planar maps (class of embeddings of a planar graph) are easier to study than planar graphs, but a ..."
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Cited by 26 (3 self)
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This chapter deals with compressed coding of graphs. We focus on planar graphs, a widely studied class of graphs. A planar graph is a graph that admits an embedding in the plane without edge crossings. Planar maps (class of embeddings of a planar graph) are easier to study than planar graphs, but as a planar graph may admit an exponential number of maps, they give little information on graphs. In order to give an informationtheoretic upper bound on planar graphs, we introduce a definition of a quasicanonical embedding for planar graphs: wellorderly maps. This appears to be an useful tool to study and encode planar graphs. We present upper bounds on the number of unlabeled planar graphs and on the number of edges in a random planar graph. We also present an algorithm to compute wellorderly maps and implying an efficient coding of planar graphs.
Succinct Representations of Planar Maps
, 2008
"... This paper addresses the problem of representing the connectivity information of geometric objects using as little memory as possible. As opposed to raw compression issues, the focus is here on designing data structures that preserve the possibility of answering incidence queries in constant time. W ..."
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Cited by 23 (5 self)
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This paper addresses the problem of representing the connectivity information of geometric objects using as little memory as possible. As opposed to raw compression issues, the focus is here on designing data structures that preserve the possibility of answering incidence queries in constant time. We propose in particular the first optimal representations for 3connected planar graphs and triangulations, which are the most standard classes of graphs underlying meshes with spherical topology. Optimal means that these representations asymptotically match the respective entropy of the two classes, namely 2 bits per edge for 3connected planar graphs, and 1.62 bits per triangle or equivalently 3.24 bits per vertex for triangulations. These representations support adjacency queries between vertices and faces in constant time.
Planar Graphs, via WellOrderly Maps and Trees
, 2004
"... The family of wellorderly maps is a family of planar maps with the property that every connected planar graph has at least one plane embedding which is a wellorderly map. We show that the number of wellorderly maps with n nodes is at most 2 αn+O(log n),whereα ≈ 4.91. A direct consequence of thi ..."
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Cited by 22 (4 self)
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The family of wellorderly maps is a family of planar maps with the property that every connected planar graph has at least one plane embedding which is a wellorderly map. We show that the number of wellorderly maps with n nodes is at most 2 αn+O(log n),whereα ≈ 4.91. A direct consequence of this is a new upper bound on the number p(n) of unlabeled planar graphs with n nodes, log 2 p(n) � 4.91n. The result is then used to show that asymptotically almost all (labeled or unlabeled), (connected or not) planar graphs with n nodes have between 1.85n and 2.44n edges. Finally we obtain as an outcome of our combinatorial analysis an explicit linear time encoding algorithm for unlabeled planar graphs using, in the worstcase, a rate of 4.91 bits per node and of 2.82 bits per edge.
Compact floorplanning via orderly spanning trees
, 2003
"... Floorplanning is a fundamental step in VLSI chip design. Based upon the concept of orderly spanning trees, we present a simple O(n)time algorithm to construct a floorplan for any nnode plane triangulation. In comparison with previous floorplanning algorithms in the literature, our solution is n ..."
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Cited by 20 (2 self)
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Floorplanning is a fundamental step in VLSI chip design. Based upon the concept of orderly spanning trees, we present a simple O(n)time algorithm to construct a floorplan for any nnode plane triangulation. In comparison with previous floorplanning algorithms in the literature, our solution is not only simpler in the algorithm itself, but also produces floorplans which require fewer module types. An equally important aspect of our new algorithm lies in its ability to fit the floorplan area in a rectangle of size (n − 1) ×⌊(2n + 1)/3⌋. Lower bounds on the worstcase area for floorplanning any plane triangulation are also provided in the paper.
An Experimental Analysis of a Compact Graph Representation
 In ALENEX04
, 2004
"... In previous work we described a method for compactly representing graphs with small separators, which makes use of small separators, and presented preliminary experimental results. In this paper we extend the experimental results in several ways, including extensions for dynamic insertion and deleti ..."
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Cited by 19 (6 self)
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In previous work we described a method for compactly representing graphs with small separators, which makes use of small separators, and presented preliminary experimental results. In this paper we extend the experimental results in several ways, including extensions for dynamic insertion and deletion of edges, a comparison of a variety of coding schemes, and an implementation of two applications using the representation.
Lineartime compression of boundedgenus graphs into informationtheoretically optimal number of bits
 In: 13th Symposium on Discrete Algorithms (SODA
, 2002
"... 1 I n t roduct ion This extended abstract summarizes a new result for the graph compression problem, addressing how to compress a graph G into a binary string Z with the requirement that Z can be decoded to recover G. Graph compression finds important applications in 3D model compression of Computer ..."
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Cited by 17 (1 self)
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1 I n t roduct ion This extended abstract summarizes a new result for the graph compression problem, addressing how to compress a graph G into a binary string Z with the requirement that Z can be decoded to recover G. Graph compression finds important applications in 3D model compression of Computer Graphics [12, 1720] and compact routing table of Computer Networks [7}. For brevity, let a ~rgraph stand for a graph with property n. The informationtheoretically optimal number of bits required to represent an nnode ngraph is [log 2 N~(n)], where N,~(n) is the number of distinct nnode *rgraphs. Although determining or approximating the close forms of N ~ (n) for nontrivial classes of n is challenging, we provide a lineartime methodology for graph compression schemes that are informationtheoretically optimal with respect to continuous uperadditive functions (abbreviated as optimal for the rest of the extended abstract). 1 Specifically, if 7r satisfies certain properties, then we can compress any nnode medge 1rgraph G into a binary string Z such that G and Z can be computed from each other in O(m + n) time, and that the bit count of Z is at most fl(n) + o(fl(n)) for any continuous uperadditive function fl(n) with log 2 N~(n) < fl(n) + o(fl(n)). Our methodology is applicable to general classes of graphs; this extended abstract focuses on graphs with sublinear genus. 2 For example, if the input nnode,rgraph G is equipped with an embedding on its genus surface, which is a reasonable assumption for graphs arising from 3D model compression, then our methodology is applicable to any 7r satisfying the following statements:
Succinct representation of triangulations with a boundary. WADS
, 2005
"... Abstract. We consider the problem of designing succinct geometric data structures while maintaining efficient navigation operations. A data structure is said succinct if the asymptotic amount of space it uses matches the entropy of the class of structures represented. For the case of planar triangul ..."
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Cited by 16 (6 self)
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Abstract. We consider the problem of designing succinct geometric data structures while maintaining efficient navigation operations. A data structure is said succinct if the asymptotic amount of space it uses matches the entropy of the class of structures represented. For the case of planar triangulations with a boundary we propose a succinct representation of the combinatorial information that improves to 2.175 bits per triangle the asymptotic amount of space required and that supports the navigation between adjacent triangles in constant time (as well as other standard operations). For triangulations with m faces of a surface with genus g, our representation requires asymptotically an extra amount of 36(g − 1) lg m bits (which is negligible as long as g ≪ m / lg m). 1
Canonical Decomposition of Outerplanar Maps and Application to Enumeration, Coding and Generation
, 2003
"... In this article we define a canonical decomposition of rooted outerplanar maps into a spanning tree and a list of edges. This decomposition, constructible in linear time, implies the existence of bijection between rooted outerplanar maps with n nodes and bicolored rooted ordered trees with n node ..."
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Cited by 15 (1 self)
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In this article we define a canonical decomposition of rooted outerplanar maps into a spanning tree and a list of edges. This decomposition, constructible in linear time, implies the existence of bijection between rooted outerplanar maps with n nodes and bicolored rooted ordered trees with n nodes where all the nodes of the last branch are colored white. As a consequence, for rooted outerplanar maps of n nodes, we derive: an enumeration formula, and an asymptotic of 2 3n (log n) ; an optimal data structure of asymptotically 3n bits, built in O(n) time, supporting adjacency and degree queries in worstcase constant time and neighbors query of a ddegree node in worstcase O(d) time...