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Topology Control in Wireless Ad Hoc and Sensor Networks
 ACM Computing Surveys
, 2005
"... Topology Control (TC) is one of the most important techniques used in wireless ad hoc and sensor networks to reduce energy consumption (which is essential to extend the network operational time) and radio interference (with a positive effect on the network traffic carrying capacity). The goal of thi ..."
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Cited by 296 (4 self)
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Topology Control (TC) is one of the most important techniques used in wireless ad hoc and sensor networks to reduce energy consumption (which is essential to extend the network operational time) and radio interference (with a positive effect on the network traffic carrying capacity). The goal of this technique is to control the topology of the graph representing the communication links between network nodes with the purpose of maintaining some global graph property (e.g., connectivity), while reducing energy consumption and/or interference that are strictly related to the nodes ’ transmitting range. In this article, we state several problems related to topology control in wireless ad hoc and sensor networks, and we survey stateoftheart solutions which have been proposed to tackle them. We also outline several directions for further research which we hope will motivate researchers to undertake additional studies in this field.
Does Topology Control Reduce Interference
 In Proceedings of the 5 th ACM International Symposium on Mobile Ad Hoc Networking and Computing (MOBIHOC
, 2004
"... Topology control in adhoc networks tries to lower node energy consumption by reducing transmission power and by confining interference, collisions and consequently retransmissions. Commonly low interference is claimed to be a consequence to sparseness of the resulting topology. In this paper we dis ..."
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Cited by 129 (10 self)
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Topology control in adhoc networks tries to lower node energy consumption by reducing transmission power and by confining interference, collisions and consequently retransmissions. Commonly low interference is claimed to be a consequence to sparseness of the resulting topology. In this paper we disprove this implication. In contrast to most of the related work—claiming to solve the interference issue by graph sparseness without providing clear argumentation or proofs—, we provide a concise and intuitive definition of interference. Based on this definition we show that most currently proposed topology control algorithms do not effectively constrain interference. Furthermore we propose connectivitypreserving and spanner constructions that are interferenceminimal.
Topology control meets sinr: the scheduling complexity of arbitrary topologies
 in Proceedings of ACM MobiHoc
, 2006
"... To date, topology control in wireless ad hoc and sensor networks—the study of how to compute from the given communication network a subgraph with certain beneficial properties—has been considered as a static problem only; the time required to actually schedule the links of a computed topology with ..."
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Cited by 103 (9 self)
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To date, topology control in wireless ad hoc and sensor networks—the study of how to compute from the given communication network a subgraph with certain beneficial properties—has been considered as a static problem only; the time required to actually schedule the links of a computed topology without message collision was generally ignored. In this paper we analyze topology control in the context of the physical SignaltoInterferenceplusNoiseRatio (SINR) model, focusing on the question of how and how fast the links of a resulting topology can actually be realized over time. For this purpose, we define and study a generalized version of the SINR model and obtain theoretical upper bounds on the scheduling complexity of arbitrary topologies in wireless networks. Specifically, we prove that even in worstcase networks, if the signals are transmitted with correctly assigned transmission power levels, the number of time slots required to successfully schedule all links of an arbitrary topology is proportional to the squared logarithm of the number of network nodes times a previously defined static interference measure. Interestingly, although originally considered without explicit accounting for signal collision in the SINR model, this static interference measure plays an important role in the analysis of link scheduling with physical link interference. Our result thus bridges the gap between static graphbased interference models and the physical SINR model. Based on these results, we also show that when it comes to scheduling, requiring the communication links to be symmetric may imply significantly higher costs as opposed to topologies allowing unidirectional links.
RealTime communication and coordination in embedded sensor networks
 PROCEEDINGS OF THE IEEE
, 2003
"... Sensor networks can be considered distributed computing platforms with many severe constraints including limited CPU speed, memory size, power, and bandwidth. Individual nodes in sensor networks are typically unreliable and the network topology dynamically changes, possibly frequently. Sensor networ ..."
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Cited by 97 (12 self)
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Sensor networks can be considered distributed computing platforms with many severe constraints including limited CPU speed, memory size, power, and bandwidth. Individual nodes in sensor networks are typically unreliable and the network topology dynamically changes, possibly frequently. Sensor networks can also be considered a form of ad hoc network. However, here also many constraints in sensor networks are different or more severe. Sensor networks also differ because of their tight interaction with the physical environment via sensors and actuators. Due to all of these differences many solutions developed for general distributed computing platforms and for ad hoc networks cannot be applied to sensor networks. Many new and exciting research challenges exist. This paper discusses the state of the art and presents the key research challenges to be solved, some with initial solutions or approaches.
LowInterference Topology Control for Wireless Ad Hoc Networks
 ACM Wireless Networks
, 2005
"... supported by NSF CCR0311174. Abstract — Topology control has been well studied in wireless ad hoc networks. However, only a few topology control methods take into account the low interference as a goal of the methods. Some researchers tried to reduce the interference by lowering node energy consump ..."
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Cited by 79 (1 self)
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supported by NSF CCR0311174. Abstract — Topology control has been well studied in wireless ad hoc networks. However, only a few topology control methods take into account the low interference as a goal of the methods. Some researchers tried to reduce the interference by lowering node energy consumption (i.e. by reducing the transmission power) or by devising low degree topology controls, but none of those protocols can guarantee low interference. Recently, Burkhart et al. [?] proposed several methods to construct topologies whose maximum link interference is minimized while the topology is connected or is a spanner for Euclidean length. In this paper we give algorithms to construct a network topology for wireless ad hoc network such that the maximum (or average) link (or node) interference of the topology is either minimized or approximately minimized. Index Terms — Topology control, interference, wireless ad hoc networks.
Localized Topology Control for Heterogeneous Wireless Adhoc Networks
"... We study topology control in heterogeneous wireless ad hoc networks, where mobile hosts may have different maximum transmission powers and two nodes are connected iff they are within the maximum transmission range of each other. We present several strategies that all wireless nodes selfmaintain sp ..."
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Cited by 69 (11 self)
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We study topology control in heterogeneous wireless ad hoc networks, where mobile hosts may have different maximum transmission powers and two nodes are connected iff they are within the maximum transmission range of each other. We present several strategies that all wireless nodes selfmaintain sparse and power efficient topologies in heterogeneous network environment with low communication cost. The first structure is sparse and can be used for broadcasting. While the second structure keeps the minimum power consumption path, and the third structure is a length and power spanner with a bounded degree. Both the second and third structures are power efficient and can be used for unicast. Here a structure is power efficient if the total power consumption of the least cost path connecting any two nodes in it is no more than a small constant factor of that in the original heterogeneous communication graph. All our methods use at most O(n) total messages, where each message has O(log n) bits.
Link scheduling in sensor networks: Distributed edge coloring revisited
 in INFOCOM
, 2005
"... Abstract — We consider the problem of link scheduling in a sensor network employing a TDMA MAC protocol. Our link scheduling algorithm involves two phases. In the first phase, we assign a color to each edge in the network such that no two edges incident on the same node are assigned the same color. ..."
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Cited by 52 (0 self)
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Abstract — We consider the problem of link scheduling in a sensor network employing a TDMA MAC protocol. Our link scheduling algorithm involves two phases. In the first phase, we assign a color to each edge in the network such that no two edges incident on the same node are assigned the same color. We propose a distributed edge coloring algorithm that needs at most (δ+1) colors, where δ is the maximum degree of the graph. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first distributed algorithm that can edge color a graph with at most (δ +1) colors. In the second phase, we map each color to a unique timeslot and attempt to identify a direction of transmission along each edge such that the hidden terminal and the exposed terminal problems are avoided. Next, considering topologies for which a feasible solution does not exist, we obtain a direction of transmission for each edge using additional timeslots, if necessary. Finally, we show that reversing the direction of transmission along every edge leads to another feasible direction of transmission. Using both the transmission assignments we obtain a TDMA MAC schedule which enables twoway communication between every pair of neighbors. For acyclic topologies, we show that at most 2(δ +1) timeslots are required. Through simulations we show that for sparse graphs with cycles the number of timeslots assigned is close to 2(δ +1).
A Robust Interference Model for Wireless Ad Hoc Networks
 5th International Workshop on Algorithms for Wireless, Mobile, Ad Hoc and Sensor Networks (WMAN
, 2005
"... Among the foremost goals of topology control in wireless adhoc networks is interference reduction. This paper presents a receivercentric interference model featuring two main advantages over previous work. First, it reflects the fact that interference occurs at the intended receiver of a message. ..."
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Cited by 47 (5 self)
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Among the foremost goals of topology control in wireless adhoc networks is interference reduction. This paper presents a receivercentric interference model featuring two main advantages over previous work. First, it reflects the fact that interference occurs at the intended receiver of a message. Second, the presented interference measure is robust with respect to addition or removal of single network nodes. Regarding both of these aspects our model intuitively corresponds to the behavior of interference in reality. Based on this interference model, we show that currently known topology control algorithms poorly reduce interference. Motivated by the observation that already onedimensional network instances display the intricacy of the considered problem, we continue to focus on the socalled highway model. Setting out to analyze the special case of the exponential node chain, we eventually describe an algorithm guaranteeing to achieve a 4 √ ∆approximation of the optimal connectivitypreserving topology in the general highway model. 1.
MobilitySensitive Topology Control in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks
 Proc. IEEE Int’l Parallel and Distributed Processing Symp
, 2004
"... Abstract—In most existing localized topology control protocols for mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs), each node selects a few logical neighbors based on location information and uses a small transmission range to cover those logical neighbors. Transmission range reduction conserves energy and bandwidt ..."
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Cited by 34 (8 self)
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Abstract—In most existing localized topology control protocols for mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs), each node selects a few logical neighbors based on location information and uses a small transmission range to cover those logical neighbors. Transmission range reduction conserves energy and bandwidth consumption, while still maintaining network connectivity. However, the majority of these approaches assume a static network without mobility. In a mobile environment network connectivity can be compromised by two types of “bad ” location information: inconsistent information, which makes a node select too few logical neighbors, and outdated information, which makes a node use too small a transmission range. In this paper, we first show some issues in existing topology control. Then, we propose a mobilitysensitive topology control method that extends many existing mobilityinsensitive protocols. Two mechanisms are introduced: consistent local views that avoid inconsistent information and delay and mobility management that tolerate outdated information. The effectiveness of the proposed approach is confirmed through an extensive simulation study. Index Terms—Connectivity, mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs), mobility management, simulation, topology control, view consistency. æ 1