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17
Extracting Schema from Semistructured Data
, 1998
"... Semistructured data is characterized by the lack of any fixed and rigid schema, although typically the data has some implicit structure. While the lack of fixed schema makes extracting semistructured data fairly easy and an attractive goal, presenting and querying such data is greatly impaired. Thus ..."
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Cited by 112 (5 self)
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Semistructured data is characterized by the lack of any fixed and rigid schema, although typically the data has some implicit structure. While the lack of fixed schema makes extracting semistructured data fairly easy and an attractive goal, presenting and querying such data is greatly impaired. Thus, a critical problem is the discovery of the structure implicit in semistructured data and, subsequently, the recasting of the raw data in terms of this structure. In this paper, we consider a very general form of semistructured data based on labeled, directed graphs. We show that such data can be typed using the greatest fixpoint semantics of monadic datalog programs. We present an algorithm for approximate typing of semistructured data. We establish that the general problem of finding an optimal such typing is NPhard, but present some heuristics and techniques based on clustering that allow efficient and nearoptimal treatment of the problem. We also present some preliminary experimental results.
Ntyft/ntyxt rules reduce to ntree rules
 Information and Computation
, 1996
"... Groote and Vaandrager introduced the tyft/tyxt format for Transition System Specifications (TSSs), and established that for each TSS in this format that is wellfounded, the bisimulation equivalence it induces is a congruence. In this paper, we construct for each TSS in tyft/tyxt format an equivalen ..."
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Cited by 54 (18 self)
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Groote and Vaandrager introduced the tyft/tyxt format for Transition System Specifications (TSSs), and established that for each TSS in this format that is wellfounded, the bisimulation equivalence it induces is a congruence. In this paper, we construct for each TSS in tyft/tyxt format an equivalent TSS that consists of tree rules only. As a corollary we can give an affirmative answer to an open question, namely whether the wellfoundedness condition in the congruence theorem for tyft/tyxt can be dropped. These results extend to tyft/tyxt with negative premises and predicates. 1
Probabilistic Logic Programming
 In Proc. of the 13th European Conf. on Artificial Intelligence (ECAI98
, 1998
"... . We present a new approach to probabilistic logic programs with a possible worlds semantics. Classical program clauses are extended by a subinterval of [0; 1] that describes the range for the conditional probability of the head of a clause given its body. We show that deduction in the defined proba ..."
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Cited by 45 (11 self)
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. We present a new approach to probabilistic logic programs with a possible worlds semantics. Classical program clauses are extended by a subinterval of [0; 1] that describes the range for the conditional probability of the head of a clause given its body. We show that deduction in the defined probabilistic logic programs is computationally more complex than deduction in classical logic programs. More precisely, restricted deduction problems that are Pcomplete for classical logic programs are already NPhard for probabilistic logic programs. We then elaborate a linear programming approach to probabilistic deduction that is efficient in interesting special cases. In the best case, the generated linear programs have a number of variables that is linear in the number of ground instances of purely probabilistic clauses in a probabilistic logic program. 1 INTRODUCTION There is already a quite extensive literature on probabilistic propositional logics and their various dialects. The most fa...
Logic programs with abstract constraint atoms
 In Proceedings of the 19th National Conference on Artificial Intelligence (AAAI04
, 2004
"... We propose and study extensions of logic programming with constraints represented as generalized atoms of the form C(X), where X is a finite set of atoms and C is an abstract constraint (formally, a collection of sets of atoms). Atoms C(X) are satisfied by an interpretation (set of atoms) M, if M ∩ ..."
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Cited by 22 (5 self)
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We propose and study extensions of logic programming with constraints represented as generalized atoms of the form C(X), where X is a finite set of atoms and C is an abstract constraint (formally, a collection of sets of atoms). Atoms C(X) are satisfied by an interpretation (set of atoms) M, if M ∩ X ∈ C. We focus here on monotone constraints, that is, those collections C that are closed under the superset. They include, in particular, weight (or pseudoboolean) constraints studied both by the logic programming and SAT communities. We show that key concepts of the theory of normal logic programs such as the onestep provability operator, the semantics of supported and stable models, as well as several of their properties including complexity results, can be lifted to such case.
A Fixpoint Semantics and an SLDResolution Calculus for Modal Logic Programs
, 2001
"... We propose a modal logic programming language called MProlog, which is as expressive as the general modal Horn fragment. We give a fixpoint semantics and an SLDresolution calculus for MProlog in all of the basic serial modal logics KD, T, KDB, B, KD4, S4, KD5, KD45, and S5. For an MProlog program P ..."
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Cited by 15 (13 self)
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We propose a modal logic programming language called MProlog, which is as expressive as the general modal Horn fragment. We give a fixpoint semantics and an SLDresolution calculus for MProlog in all of the basic serial modal logics KD, T, KDB, B, KD4, S4, KD5, KD45, and S5. For an MProlog program P and for L being one of the mentioned logics, we define an operator TL,P, which has the least fixpoint IL,P. This fixpoint is a set of formulae, which may contain labeled forms of the modal operator ✸, and is called the least Lmodel generator of P. The standard model of IL,P is shown to be a least Lmodel of P. The SLDresolution calculus for MProlog is designed with a similar style as for classical logic programming. It is sound and complete. We also extend the calculus for MProlog in the almost serial modal logics KB, K 5, K 45, and KB5. 1
Polynomial interpretations as a basis for termination analysis of logic programs
 PROCEEDINGS OF THE 21ST INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON LOGIC PROGRAMMING (ICLP’05), VOLUME 3668 OF LNCS
, 2005
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The expressiveness of locally stratified programs
 Annals of Mathematics and Artificial Intelligence
, 1995
"... This paper completes an investigation of the logical expressibility of finite, locally stratified, general logic programs. We show that every hyperarithmetic set can be defined by a suitably chosen locally stratified logic program (as a set of values of a predicate over its perfect model). This is a ..."
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Cited by 15 (2 self)
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This paper completes an investigation of the logical expressibility of finite, locally stratified, general logic programs. We show that every hyperarithmetic set can be defined by a suitably chosen locally stratified logic program (as a set of values of a predicate over its perfect model). This is an optimal result, since the perfect model of a locally stratified program is itself an implicitly definable hyperarithmetic set (under a recursive coding of the Herbrand base); hence to
Multimodal Logic Programming and Its Applications to Modal Deductive Databases
, 2003
"... We give a general framework for developing the least model semantics, xpoint semantics, and SLDresolution calculi for logic programs in multimodal logics whose frame restrictions consist of the conditions of seriality (i.e. 8x 9y R i (x; y)) and some classical rstorder Horn formulas. Our appr ..."
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Cited by 13 (9 self)
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We give a general framework for developing the least model semantics, xpoint semantics, and SLDresolution calculi for logic programs in multimodal logics whose frame restrictions consist of the conditions of seriality (i.e. 8x 9y R i (x; y)) and some classical rstorder Horn formulas. Our approach is direct and no restriction on occurrences of 2 i and 3 i is required. We apply the framework for a large class of basic serial multimodal logics, which are parameterized by an arbitrary combination of generalized versions of axioms T , B, 4, 5 (in the form, e.g., 4 : 2 i ! 2 j 2k) and I : 2 i ! 2 j . Another part of the work is devoted to programming in multimodal logics intended for reasoning about multidegree belief, for use in distributed systems of belief, or for reasoning about epistemic states of agents in multiagent systems.
Learning Recursive Theories in the Normal ILP Setting
, 2003
"... Induction of recursive theories in the normal ILP setting is a difficult learning task whose complexity is equivalent to multiple predicate learning. In this paper we propose computational solutions to some relevant issues raised by the multiple predicate learning problem. A separateandparallel ..."
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Cited by 13 (9 self)
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Induction of recursive theories in the normal ILP setting is a difficult learning task whose complexity is equivalent to multiple predicate learning. In this paper we propose computational solutions to some relevant issues raised by the multiple predicate learning problem. A separateandparallel conquer search strategy is adopted to interleave the learning of clauses supplying predicates with mutually recursive definitions. A novel generality order to be imposed on the search space of clauses is investigated, in order to cope with recursion in a more suitable way. The consistency recovery is performed by reformulating the current theory and by applying a layering technique, based on the collapsed dependency graph. The proposed approach has been implemented in the ILP system ATRE and tested on some laboratorysized and realworld data sets. Experimental results demonstrate that ATRE is able to learn correct theories autonomously and to discover concept dependencies. Finally, related works and their main differences with our approach are discussed.
Multimodal logic programming
 Theoretical Computer Science
, 2006
"... We give a framework for developing the least model semantics, fixpoint semantics, and SLDresolution calculi for logic programs in multimodal logics whose frame restrictions consist of the conditions of seriality (i.e. ∀x ∃y Ri(x, y)) and some classical firstorder Horn formulas. Our approach is dir ..."
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Cited by 12 (7 self)
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We give a framework for developing the least model semantics, fixpoint semantics, and SLDresolution calculi for logic programs in multimodal logics whose frame restrictions consist of the conditions of seriality (i.e. ∀x ∃y Ri(x, y)) and some classical firstorder Horn formulas. Our approach is direct and no special restriction on occurrences of ✷i and ✸i is required. We apply our framework for a large class of basic serial multimodal logics, which are parameterized by an arbitrary combination of generalized versions of axioms T, B, 4, 5 (in the form, e.g., 4: ✷iϕ → ✷j✷kϕ) and I: ✷iϕ → ✷jϕ. Another part of the work is devoted to programming in multimodal logics intended for reasoning about multidegree belief, for use in distributed systems of belief, or for reasoning about epistemic states of agents in multiagent systems. For that we also use the framework, and although these latter logics belong to the mentioned class of basic serial multimodal logics, the special SLDresolution calculi proposed for them are more efficient.