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Compiling polymorphism using intensional type analysis
 In Symposium on Principles of Programming Languages
, 1995
"... The views and conclusions contained in this document are those of the authors and should not be interpreted as ..."
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Cited by 262 (18 self)
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The views and conclusions contained in this document are those of the authors and should not be interpreted as
What is a Recursive Module?
 In SIGPLAN Conference on Programming Language Design and Implementation
, 1999
"... A hierarchical module system is an effective tool for structuring large programs. Strictly hierarchical module systems impose an acyclic ordering on import dependencies among program units. This can impede modular programming by forcing mutuallydependent components to be consolidated into a single ..."
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Cited by 88 (5 self)
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A hierarchical module system is an effective tool for structuring large programs. Strictly hierarchical module systems impose an acyclic ordering on import dependencies among program units. This can impede modular programming by forcing mutuallydependent components to be consolidated into a single module. Recently there have been several proposals for module systems that admit cyclic dependencies, but it is not clear how these proposals relate to one another, nor how one might integrate them into an expressive module system such as that of ML. To address this question we provide a typetheoretic analysis of the notion of a recursive module in the context of a "phasedistinction" formalism for higherorder module systems. We extend this calculus with a recursive module mechanism and a new form of signature, called a recursively dependent signature, to support the defmition of recursive modules. These extensions are justified by an interpretation in terms of more primitive language constructs. This interpretation may also serve as a guide for implementation.
MultiStage Programming: Its Theory and Applications
, 1999
"... MetaML is a statically typed functional programming language with special support for program generation. In addition to providing the standard features of contemporary programming languages such as Standard ML, MetaML provides three staging annotations. These staging annotations allow the construct ..."
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Cited by 87 (18 self)
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MetaML is a statically typed functional programming language with special support for program generation. In addition to providing the standard features of contemporary programming languages such as Standard ML, MetaML provides three staging annotations. These staging annotations allow the construction, combination, and execution of objectprograms. Our thesis is that MetaML's three staging annotations provide a useful, theoretically sound basis for building program generators. This dissertation reports on our study of MetaML's staging constructs, their use, their implementation, and their formal semantics. Our results include an extended example of where MetaML allows us to produce efficient programs, an explanation of why implementing these constructs in traditional ways can be challenging, two formulations of MetaML's semantics, a type system for MetaML, and a proposal for extending ...
Types for Modules
, 1998
"... The programming language Standard ML is an amalgam of two, largely orthogonal, languages. The Core language expresses details of algorithms and data structures. The Modules language expresses the modular architecture of a software system. Both languages are statically typed, with their static and dy ..."
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Cited by 68 (9 self)
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The programming language Standard ML is an amalgam of two, largely orthogonal, languages. The Core language expresses details of algorithms and data structures. The Modules language expresses the modular architecture of a software system. Both languages are statically typed, with their static and dynamic semantics specified by a formal definition.
Tagless Staged Interpreters for Typed Languages
 In the International Conference on Functional Programming (ICFP ’02
, 2002
"... Multistage programming languages provide a convenient notation for explicitly staging programs. Staging a definitional interpreter for a domain specific language is one way of deriving an implementation that is both readable and efficient. In an untyped setting, staging an interpreter "removes ..."
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Cited by 54 (11 self)
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Multistage programming languages provide a convenient notation for explicitly staging programs. Staging a definitional interpreter for a domain specific language is one way of deriving an implementation that is both readable and efficient. In an untyped setting, staging an interpreter "removes a complete layer of interpretive overhead", just like partial evaluation. In a typed setting however, HindleyMilner type systems do not allow us to exploit typing information in the language being interpreted. In practice, this can have a slowdown cost factor of three or more times.
Type Checking with Universes
, 1991
"... Various formulations of constructive type theories have been proposed to serve as the basis for machineassisted proof and as a theoretical basis for studying programming languages. Many of these calculi include a cumulative hierarchy of "universes," each a type of types closed under a ..."
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Cited by 24 (6 self)
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Various formulations of constructive type theories have been proposed to serve as the basis for machineassisted proof and as a theoretical basis for studying programming languages. Many of these calculi include a cumulative hierarchy of "universes," each a type of types closed under a collection of typeforming operations. Universes are of interest for a variety of reasons, some philosophical (predicative vs. impredicative type theories), some theoretical (limitations on the closure properties of type theories), and some practical (to achieve some of the advantages of a type of all types without sacrificing consistency.) The Generalized Calculus of Constructions (CC ! ) is a formal theory of types that includes such a hierarchy of universes. Although essential to the formalization of constructive mathematics, universes are tedious to use in practice, for one is required to make specific choices of universe levels and to ensure that all choices are consistent. In this pa...
TypeTheoretic Methodology For Practical Programming Languages
 DEPARTMENT OF COMPUTER SCIENCE, CORNELL UNIVERSITY
, 1998
"... The significance of type theory to the theory of programming languages has long been recognized. Advances in programming languages have often derived from understanding that stems from type theory. However, these applications of type theory to practical programming languages have been indirect; the ..."
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Cited by 23 (3 self)
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The significance of type theory to the theory of programming languages has long been recognized. Advances in programming languages have often derived from understanding that stems from type theory. However, these applications of type theory to practical programming languages have been indirect; the differences between practical languages and type theory have prevented direct connections between the two. This dissertation presents systematic techniques directly relating practical programming languages to type theory. These techniques allow programming languages to be interpreted in the rich mathematical domain of type theory. Such interpretations lead to semantics that are at once denotational and operational, combining the advantages of each, and they also lay the foundation for formal verification of computer programs in type theory. Previous type theories either have not provided adequate expressiveness to interpret practical languages, or have provided such expressiveness at the expense of essential features of the type theory. In particular, no previous type theory has supported a notion of partial functions (needed to interpret recursion in practical languages), and a notion of total functions and objects (needed to reason about data values), and an intrinsic notion of equality (needed for most interesting results). This dissertation presents the first type theory incorporating all three, and discusses issues arising in the design of that type theory. This type theory is used as the target of a typetheoretic semantics for a expressive programming calculus. This calculus may serve as an internal language for a variety of functional programming languages. The semantics is stated as a syntaxdirected embedding of the programming calculus into type theory. A critical point arising in both the type theory and the typetheoretic semantics is the issue of admissibility. Admissibility governs what types it is legal to form recursive functions over. To build a useful type theory for partial functions it is necessary to have a wide class of admissible types. In particular, it is necessary for all the types arising in the typetheoretic semantics to be admissible. In this dissertation I present a class of admissible types that is considerably wider than any previously known class.
Abstract Machines for Dynamic Computation
 UNIVERSITY OF EDINBURGH
, 2001
"... In this thesis we address the challenges associated with the provision of dynamic software architectures. These are systems in which programs are constructed from separately compiled units with a facility for the replacement of these units at runtime. Typical examples of applications which will bene ..."
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Cited by 11 (0 self)
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In this thesis we address the challenges associated with the provision of dynamic software architectures. These are systems in which programs are constructed from separately compiled units with a facility for the replacement of these units at runtime. Typical examples of applications which will benefit from this dynamic approach are longlived systems in which downtime is highly undesirable, for example, webservers, database engines, and equipment controllers. In addition, dynamic software architectures are also gaining popularity with the recent advent of widearea Internet applications, where it is often impractical to compile a program in its entirety or begin execution in a single step. Our approach to dynamic software architectures differs from earlier attempts in that we guarantee the safety of the replacement operation. This is done by founding our techniques on the rigour of strong typing. In the first half of the thesis we take an existing static software architecture with strong typing facilities and modular program construction, namely the Standard ML platform, and equip
Monadic Type Systems: Pure Type Systems for Impure Settings (Preliminary Report)
 In Proceedings of the Second HOOTS Workshop
, 1997
"... Pure type systems and computational monads are two parameterized frameworks that have proved to be quite useful in both theoretical and practical applications. We join the foundational concepts of both of these to obtain monadic type systems. Essentially, monadic type systems inherit the parameteriz ..."
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Cited by 8 (2 self)
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Pure type systems and computational monads are two parameterized frameworks that have proved to be quite useful in both theoretical and practical applications. We join the foundational concepts of both of these to obtain monadic type systems. Essentially, monadic type systems inherit the parameterized higherorder type structure of pure type systems and the monadic term and type structure used to capture computational effects in the theory of computational monads. We demonstrate that monadic type systems nicely characterize previous work and suggest how they can support several new theoretical and practical applications. A technical foundation for monadic type systems is laid by recasting and scaling up the main results from pure type systems (confluence, subject reduction, strong normalisation for particular classes of systems, etc.) and from operational presentations of computational monads (notions of operational equivalence based on applicative similarity, coinduction proof techni...
Staged Notational Definitions
 GENERATIVE PROGRAMMING AND COMPONENT ENGINEERING (GPCE), LECTURE NOTES IN COMPUTER SCIENCE
, 2003
"... Recent work proposed defining typesafe macros via interpretation into a multistage language. The utility of this approach was illustrated with a language called MacroML, in which all type checking is carried out before macro expansion. Building on this work, the goal of this paper is to develo ..."
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Cited by 7 (3 self)
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Recent work proposed defining typesafe macros via interpretation into a multistage language. The utility of this approach was illustrated with a language called MacroML, in which all type checking is carried out before macro expansion. Building on this work, the goal of this paper is to develop a macro language that makes it easy for programmers to reason about terms locally. We show that defining the semantics of macros in this manner helps in developing and verifying not only type systems for macro languages but also equational reasoning principles. Because the MacroML calculus is sensetive to renaming of (what appear locally to be) bound variables, we present a calculus of staged notational definitions (SND) that eliminates the renaming problem but retains MacroML's phase distinction. Additionally, SND incorporates the generality of Griffin's account of notational definitions. We exhibit a formal equational theory for SND and prove its soundness.