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Books in graphs
, 2008
"... A set of q triangles sharing a common edge is called a book of size q. We write β (n, m) for the the maximal q such that every graph G (n, m) contains a book of size q. In this note 1) we compute β ( n, cn 2) for infinitely many values of c with 1/4 < c < 1/3, 2) we show that if m ≥ (1/4 − α) n 2 wi ..."
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Cited by 1802 (19 self)
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A set of q triangles sharing a common edge is called a book of size q. We write β (n, m) for the the maximal q such that every graph G (n, m) contains a book of size q. In this note 1) we compute β ( n, cn 2) for infinitely many values of c with 1/4 < c < 1/3, 2) we show that if m ≥ (1/4 − α) n 2 with 0 < α < 17 −3 (), and G has no book of size at least graph G1 of order at least
The structure and function of complex networks
 SIAM REVIEW
, 2003
"... Inspired by empirical studies of networked systems such as the Internet, social networks, and biological networks, researchers have in recent years developed a variety of techniques and models to help us understand or predict the behavior of these systems. Here we review developments in this field, ..."
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Cited by 1407 (9 self)
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Inspired by empirical studies of networked systems such as the Internet, social networks, and biological networks, researchers have in recent years developed a variety of techniques and models to help us understand or predict the behavior of these systems. Here we review developments in this field, including such concepts as the smallworld effect, degree distributions, clustering, network correlations, random graph models, models of network growth and preferential attachment, and dynamical processes taking place on networks.
How bad is selfish routing?
 JOURNAL OF THE ACM
, 2002
"... We consider the problem of routing traffic to optimize the performance of a congested network. We are given a network, a rate of traffic between each pair of nodes, and a latency function for each edge specifying the time needed to traverse the edge given its congestion; the objective is to route t ..."
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Cited by 516 (27 self)
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We consider the problem of routing traffic to optimize the performance of a congested network. We are given a network, a rate of traffic between each pair of nodes, and a latency function for each edge specifying the time needed to traverse the edge given its congestion; the objective is to route traffic such that the sum of all travel times—the total latency—is minimized. In many settings, it may be expensive or impossible to regulate network traffic so as to implement an optimal assignment of routes. In the absence of regulation by some central authority, we assume that each network user routes its traffic on the minimumlatency path available to it, given the network congestion caused by the other users. In general such a “selfishly motivated ” assignment of traffic to paths will not minimize the total latency; hence, this lack of regulation carries the cost of decreased network performance. In this article, we quantify the degradation in network performance due to unregulated traffic. We prove that if the latency of each edge is a linear function of its congestion, then the total latency of the routes chosen by selfish network users is at most 4/3 times the minimum possible total latency (subject to the condition that all traffic must be routed). We also consider the more general setting in which edge latency functions are assumed only to be continuous and nondecreasing in the edge congestion. Here, the total
A Pairwise Key PreDistribution Scheme for Wireless Sensor Networks
, 2003
"... this paper, we provide a framework in which to study the security of key predistribution schemes, propose a new key predistribution scheme which substantially improves the resilience of the network compared to previous schemes, and give an indepth analysis of our scheme in terms of network resili ..."
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Cited by 373 (13 self)
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this paper, we provide a framework in which to study the security of key predistribution schemes, propose a new key predistribution scheme which substantially improves the resilience of the network compared to previous schemes, and give an indepth analysis of our scheme in terms of network resilience and associated overhead. Our scheme exhibits a nice threshold property: when the number of compromised nodes is less than the threshold, the probability that communications between any additional nodes are compromised is close to zero. This desirable property lowers the initial payoff of smallerscale network breaches to an adversary, and makes it necessary for the adversary to attack a large fraction of the network before it can achieve any significant gain
The LargeScale Organization of Metabolic Networks
, 2000
"... In a cell or microorganism the processes that generate mass, energy, information transfer, and cell fate specification are seamlessly integrated through a complex network of various cellular constituents and reactions. However, despite the key role these networks play in sustaining various cellular ..."
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Cited by 367 (8 self)
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In a cell or microorganism the processes that generate mass, energy, information transfer, and cell fate specification are seamlessly integrated through a complex network of various cellular constituents and reactions. However, despite the key role these networks play in sustaining various cellular functions, their largescale structure is essentially unknown. Here we present the first systematic comparative mathematical analysis of the metabolic networks of 43 organisms representing all three domains of life. We show that, despite significant variances in their individual constituents and pathways, these metabolic networks display the same topologic scaling properties demonstrating striking similarities to the inherent organization of complex nonbiological systems. This suggests that the metabolic organization is not only identical for all living organisms, but complies with the design principles of robust and errortolerant networks, and may represent a common blueprint for the largescale organization of interactions among all cellular constituents.
Measurement and Analysis of Online Social Networks
 In Proceedings of the 5th ACM/USENIX Internet Measurement Conference (IMC’07
, 2007
"... Online social networking sites like Orkut, YouTube, and Flickr are among the most popular sites on the Internet. Users of these sites form a social network, which provides a powerful means of sharing, organizing, and finding content and contacts. The popularity of these sites provides an opportunity ..."
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Cited by 345 (12 self)
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Online social networking sites like Orkut, YouTube, and Flickr are among the most popular sites on the Internet. Users of these sites form a social network, which provides a powerful means of sharing, organizing, and finding content and contacts. The popularity of these sites provides an opportunity to study the characteristics of online social network graphs at large scale. Understanding these graphs is important, both to improve current systems and to design new applications of online social networks. This paper presents a largescale measurement study and analysis of the structure of multiple online social networks. We examine data gathered from four popular online social networks: Flickr, YouTube, LiveJournal, and Orkut. We crawled the publicly accessible user links on each site, obtaining a large portion of each social network’s graph. Our data set contains over 11.3 million users and 328 million links. We believe that this is the first study to examine multiple online social networks at scale. Our results confirm the powerlaw, smallworld, and scalefree properties of online social networks. We observe that the indegree of user nodes tends to match the outdegree; that the networks contain a densely connected core of highdegree nodes; and that this core links small groups of strongly clustered, lowdegree nodes at the fringes of the network. Finally, we discuss the implications of these structural properties for the design of social network based systems.
A Random Graph Model for Massive Graphs
, 2000
"... We propose a random graph model which is a special case of sparse random graphs with given degree sequences. This model involves only a small number of parameters, called logsize and loglog growth rate. These parameters capture some universal characteristics of massive graphs. Furthermore, from the ..."
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Cited by 335 (26 self)
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We propose a random graph model which is a special case of sparse random graphs with given degree sequences. This model involves only a small number of parameters, called logsize and loglog growth rate. These parameters capture some universal characteristics of massive graphs. Furthermore, from these parameters, various properties of the graph can be derived. For example, for certain ranges of the parameters, we will compute the expected distribution of the sizes of the connected components which almost surely occur with high probability. We will illustrate the consistency of our model with the behavior of some massive graphs derived from data in telecommunications. We will also discuss the threshold function, the giant component, and the evolution of random graphs in this model.
The University of Florida sparse matrix collection
 NA DIGEST
, 1997
"... The University of Florida Sparse Matrix Collection is a large, widely available, and actively growing set of sparse matrices that arise in real applications. Its matrices cover a wide spectrum of problem domains, both those arising from problems with underlying 2D or 3D geometry (structural enginee ..."
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Cited by 301 (15 self)
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The University of Florida Sparse Matrix Collection is a large, widely available, and actively growing set of sparse matrices that arise in real applications. Its matrices cover a wide spectrum of problem domains, both those arising from problems with underlying 2D or 3D geometry (structural engineering, computational fluid dynamics, model reduction, electromagnetics, semiconductor devices, thermodynamics, materials, acoustics, computer graphics/vision, robotics/kinematics, and other discretizations) and those that typically do not have such geometry (optimization, circuit simulation, networks and graphs, economic and financial modeling, theoretical and quantum chemistry, chemical process simulation, mathematics and statistics, and power networks). The collection meets a vital need that artificiallygenerated matrices cannot meet, and is widely used by the sparse matrix algorithms community for the development and performance evaluation of sparse matrix algorithms. The collection includes software for accessing and managing the collection, from MATLAB, Fortran, and C.
A Critical Point For Random Graphs With A Given Degree Sequence
, 2000
"... Given a sequence of nonnegative real numbers 0 ; 1 ; : : : which sum to 1, we consider random graphs having approximately i n vertices of degree i. Essentially, we show that if P i(i \Gamma 2) i ? 0 then such graphs almost surely have a giant component, while if P i(i \Gamma 2) i ! 0 the ..."
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Cited by 289 (7 self)
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Given a sequence of nonnegative real numbers 0 ; 1 ; : : : which sum to 1, we consider random graphs having approximately i n vertices of degree i. Essentially, we show that if P i(i \Gamma 2) i ? 0 then such graphs almost surely have a giant component, while if P i(i \Gamma 2) i ! 0 then almost surely all components in such graphs are small. We can apply these results to G n;p ; G n;M , and other wellknown models of random graphs. There are also applications related to the chromatic number of sparse random graphs.