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69
Automatically characterizing large scale program behavior
, 2002
"... Understanding program behavior is at the foundation of computer architecture and program optimization. Many programs have wildly different behavior on even the very largest of scales (over the complete execution of the program). This realization has ramifications for many architectural and compile ..."
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Cited by 619 (41 self)
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Understanding program behavior is at the foundation of computer architecture and program optimization. Many programs have wildly different behavior on even the very largest of scales (over the complete execution of the program). This realization has ramifications for many architectural and compiler techniques, from thread scheduling, to feedback directed optimizations, to the way programs are simulated. However, in order to take advantage of timevarying behavior, we.must first develop the analytical tools necessary to automatically and efficiently analyze program behavior over large sections of execution. Our goal is to develop automatic techniques that are capable of finding and exploiting the Large Scale Behavior of programs (behavior seen over billions of instructions). The first step towards this goal is the development of a hardware independent metric that can concisely summarize the behavior of an arbitrary section of execution in a program. To this end we examine the use of Basic Block Vectors. We quantify the effectiveness of Basic Block Vectors in capturing program behavior across several different architectural metrics, explore the large scale behavior of several programs, and develop a set of algorithms based on clustering capable of analyzing this behavior. We then demonstrate an application of this technology to automatically determine where to simulate for a program to help guide computer architecture research. 1.
Locality Preserving Projections
, 2002
"... Many problems in information processing involve some form of dimensionality reduction. In this paper, we introduce Locality Preserving Projections (LPP). These are linear projective maps that arise by solving a variational problem that optimally preserves the neighborhood structure of the data s ..."
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Cited by 209 (15 self)
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Many problems in information processing involve some form of dimensionality reduction. In this paper, we introduce Locality Preserving Projections (LPP). These are linear projective maps that arise by solving a variational problem that optimally preserves the neighborhood structure of the data set. LPP should be seen as an alternative to Principal Component Analysis (PCA)  a classical linear technique that projects the data along the directions of maximal variance. When the high dimensional data lies on a low dimensional manifold embedded in the ambient space, the Locality Preserving Projections are obtained by finding the optimal linear approximations to the eigenfunctions of the Laplace Beltrami operator on the manifold. As a result, LPP shares many of the data representation properties of nonlinear techniques such as Laplacian Eigenmaps or Locally Linear Embedding. Yet LPP is linear and more crucially is defined everywhere in ambient space rather than just on the training data points. This is borne out by illustrative examples on some high dimensional data sets.
Random projection in dimensionality reduction: Applications to image and text data
 in Knowledge Discovery and Data Mining
, 2001
"... Random projections have recently emerged as a powerful method for dimensionality reduction. Theoretical results indicate that the method preserves distances quite nicely; however, empirical results are sparse. We present experimental results on using random projection as a dimensionality reduction t ..."
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Cited by 137 (0 self)
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Random projections have recently emerged as a powerful method for dimensionality reduction. Theoretical results indicate that the method preserves distances quite nicely; however, empirical results are sparse. We present experimental results on using random projection as a dimensionality reduction tool in a number of cases, where the high dimensionality of the data would otherwise lead to burdensome computations. Our application areas are the processing of both noisy and noiseless images, and information retrieval in text documents. We show that projecting the data onto a random lowerdimensional subspace yields results comparable to conventional dimensionality reduction methods such as principal component analysis: the similarity of data vectors is preserved well under random projection. However, using random projections is computationally signicantly less expensive than using, e.g., principal component analysis. We also show experimentally that using a sparse random matrix gives additional computational savings in random projection.
Picking Statistically Valid and Early Simulation Points
, 2003
"... Modern architecture research relies heavily on detailed pipeline simulation. Simulating the full execution of an industry standard benchmark can take weeks to months to complete. To address this issue we have recently proposed using Simulation Points (found by only examining basic block execution fr ..."
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Cited by 105 (14 self)
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Modern architecture research relies heavily on detailed pipeline simulation. Simulating the full execution of an industry standard benchmark can take weeks to months to complete. To address this issue we have recently proposed using Simulation Points (found by only examining basic block execution frequency profiles) to increase the efficiency and accuracy of simulation. Simulation points are a small set of execution samples that when combined represent the complete execution of the program.
Using the Triangle Inequality to Accelerate kMeans
, 2003
"... The kmeans algorithm is by far the most widely used method for discovering clusters in data. We show how to accelerate it dramatically, while still always computing exactly the same result as the standard algorithm. The accelerated algorithm avoids unnecessary distance calculations by applying the ..."
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Cited by 98 (1 self)
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The kmeans algorithm is by far the most widely used method for discovering clusters in data. We show how to accelerate it dramatically, while still always computing exactly the same result as the standard algorithm. The accelerated algorithm avoids unnecessary distance calculations by applying the triangle inequality in two different ways, and by keeping track of lower and upper bounds for distances between points and centers. Experiments show that the new algorithm is effective for datasets with up to 1000 dimensions, and becomes more and more effective as the number k of clusters increases. For k>=20 it is many times faster than the best previously known accelerated kmeans method.
Random projection for high dimensional data clustering: A cluster ensemble approach
 In: Proceedings of the 20th International Conference on Machine Learning (ICML
"... We investigate how random projection can best be used for clustering high dimensional data. Random projection has been shown to have promising theoretical properties. In practice, however, we find that it results in highly unstable clustering performance. Our solution is to use random projection in ..."
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Cited by 97 (4 self)
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We investigate how random projection can best be used for clustering high dimensional data. Random projection has been shown to have promising theoretical properties. In practice, however, we find that it results in highly unstable clustering performance. Our solution is to use random projection in a cluster ensemble approach. Empirical results show that the proposed approach achieves better and more robust clustering performance compared to not only single runs of random projection/clustering but also clustering with PCA, a traditional data reduction method for high dimensional data. To gain insights into the performance improvement obtained by our ensemble method, we analyze and identify the influence of the quality and the diversity of the individual clustering solutions on the final ensemble performance. 1.
Learning the k in kmeans
 In Proc. 17th NIPS
, 2003
"... When clustering a dataset, the right number k of clusters to use is often not obvious, and choosing k automatically is a hard algorithmic problem. In this paper we present an improved algorithm for learning k while clustering. The Gmeans algorithm is based on a statistical test for the hypothesis t ..."
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Cited by 85 (6 self)
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When clustering a dataset, the right number k of clusters to use is often not obvious, and choosing k automatically is a hard algorithmic problem. In this paper we present an improved algorithm for learning k while clustering. The Gmeans algorithm is based on a statistical test for the hypothesis that a subset of data follows a Gaussian distribution. Gmeans runs kmeans with increasing k in a hierarchical fashion until the test accepts the hypothesis that the data assigned to each kmeans center are Gaussian. Two key advantages are that the hypothesis test does not limit the covariance of the data and does not compute a full covariance matrix. Additionally, Gmeans only requires one intuitive parameter, the standard statistical significance level α. We present results from experiments showing that the algorithm works well, and better than a recent method based on the BIC penalty for model complexity. In these experiments, we show that the BIC is ineffective as a scoring function, since it does
Structures for Phase Classification
, 2004
"... Most programs are repetitive, where similar behavior can be seen at different execution times. Proposed algorithms automatically group these similar intervals of execution into phases, where all the intervals in a phase have homogeneous behavior and similar resource requirements. In this paper we ex ..."
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Cited by 58 (11 self)
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Most programs are repetitive, where similar behavior can be seen at different execution times. Proposed algorithms automatically group these similar intervals of execution into phases, where all the intervals in a phase have homogeneous behavior and similar resource requirements. In this paper we examine different program structures for capturing phase behavior. The goal is to compare the size and accuracy of these structures for performing phase classification. We focus on profiling the frequency of program level structures that are independent from underlying architecture performance metrics. This allows the phase classification to be used across different hardware designs that support the same instruction set (ISA). We compare using basic blocks, loop branches, procedures, opcodes, register usage, and memory address information for guiding phase classification. We compare these different structures in terms of their ability to create homogeneous phases, and evaluate the accuracy of using these structures to pick simulation points for SimPoint.
Adaptive Dimension Reduction for Clustering High Dimensional Data
, 2002
"... It is wellknown that for high dimensional data clustering, standard algorithms such as EM and the Kmeans are often trapped in local minimum. Many initialization methods were proposed to tackle this problem , but with only limited success. In this paper we propose a new approach to resolve this pro ..."
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Cited by 58 (2 self)
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It is wellknown that for high dimensional data clustering, standard algorithms such as EM and the Kmeans are often trapped in local minimum. Many initialization methods were proposed to tackle this problem , but with only limited success. In this paper we propose a new approach to resolve this problem by repeated dimension reductions such that Kmeans or EM are performed only in very low dimensions. Cluster membership is utilized as a bridge between the reduced dimensional subspace and the original space, providing flexibility and ease of implementation. Clustering analysis performed on highly overlapped Gaussians, DNA gene expression profiles and internet newsgroups demonstrate the e#ectiveness of the proposed algorithm.
Random projectionbased multiplicative data perturbation for privacy preserving distributed data mining
 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON KNOWLEDGE AND DATA ENGINEERING
, 2006
"... This paper explores the possibility of using multiplicative random projection matrices for privacy preserving distributed data mining. It specifically considers the problem of computing statistical aggregates like the inner product matrix, correlation coefficient matrix, and Euclidean distance matri ..."
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Cited by 54 (5 self)
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This paper explores the possibility of using multiplicative random projection matrices for privacy preserving distributed data mining. It specifically considers the problem of computing statistical aggregates like the inner product matrix, correlation coefficient matrix, and Euclidean distance matrix from distributed privacy sensitive data possibly owned by multiple parties. This class of problems is directly related to many other datamining problems such as clustering, principal component analysis, and classification. This paper makes primary contributions on two different grounds. First, it explores Independent Component Analysis as a possible tool for breaching privacy in deterministic multiplicative perturbationbased models such as random orthogonal transformation and random rotation. Then, it proposes an approximate random projectionbased technique to improve the level of privacy protection while still preserving certain statistical characteristics of the data. The paper presents extensive theoretical analysis and experimental results. Experiments demonstrate that the proposed technique is effective and can be successfully used for different types of privacypreserving data mining applications.