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The Oz Programming Model
 COMPUTER SCIENCE TODAY, LECTURE NOTES IN COMPUTER SCIENCE
, 1995
"... The Oz Programming Model (OPM) is a concurrent programming model subsuming higherorder functional and objectoriented programming as facets of a general model. This is particularly interesting for concurrent objectoriented programming, for which no comprehensive formal model existed until now. ..."
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Cited by 294 (10 self)
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The Oz Programming Model (OPM) is a concurrent programming model subsuming higherorder functional and objectoriented programming as facets of a general model. This is particularly interesting for concurrent objectoriented programming, for which no comprehensive formal model existed until now. The model
The Fusion Calculus: Expressiveness and Symmetry in Mobile Processes (Extended Abstract)
 LICS'98
, 1998
"... We present the fusion calculus as a significant step towards a canonical calculus of concurrency. It simplifies and extends the πcalculus.
The fusion calculus contains the polyadic πcalculus as a proper subcalculus and thus inherits all its expressive power. The gain is that fusion contains action ..."
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Cited by 108 (13 self)
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We present the fusion calculus as a significant step towards a canonical calculus of concurrency. It simplifies and extends the πcalculus.
The fusion calculus contains the polyadic πcalculus as a proper subcalculus and thus inherits all its expressive power. The gain is that fusion contains actions akin to updating a shared state, and a scoping construct for bounding their effects. Therefore it is easier to represent computational models such as concurrent constraints formalisms. It is also easy to represent the so called strong reduction strategies in the lambdacalculus, involving reduction under abstraction. In the πcalculus these tasks require elaborate encodings.
The dramatic main point of this paper is that we achieve these improvements by simplifying the πcalculus rather than adding features to it. The fusion calculus has only one binding operator where the πcalculus has two (input and restriction). It has a complete symmetry between input and output actions where the πcalculus has not. There is only one sensible variety of bisimulation congruence where the picalculus has at least three (early, late and open). Proofs about the fusion calculus, for example in complete axiomatizations and full abstraction, therefore are shorter and clearer.
Our results on the fusion calculus in this paper are the following. We give a structured operational semantics in the traditional style. The novelty lies in a new kind of action, fusion actions for emulating updates of a shared state. We prove that the calculus contains the πcalculus as a subcalculus. We define and motivate the bisimulation equivalence and prove a simple characterization of its induced congruence, which is given two versions of a complete axiomatization for finite terms. The expressive power of the calculus is demonstrated by giving a straightforward encoding of the strong lazy lambdacalculus, which admits reduction under lambda abstraction.
Decoding Choice Encodings
, 1999
"... We study two encodings of the asynchronous #calculus with inputguarded choice into its choicefree fragment. One encoding is divergencefree, but refines the atomic commitment of choice into gradual commitment. The other preserves atomicity, but introduces divergence. The divergent encoding is ..."
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Cited by 97 (5 self)
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We study two encodings of the asynchronous #calculus with inputguarded choice into its choicefree fragment. One encoding is divergencefree, but refines the atomic commitment of choice into gradual commitment. The other preserves atomicity, but introduces divergence. The divergent encoding is fully abstract with respect to weak bisimulation, but the more natural divergencefree encoding is not. Instead, we show that it is fully abstract with respect to coupled simulation, a slightly coarserbut still coinductively definedequivalence that does not enforce bisimilarity of internal branching decisions. The correctness proofs for the two choice encodings introduce a novel proof technique exploiting the properties of explicit decodings from translations to source terms.
The Update Calculus
, 1997
"... In the update calculus concurrent processes can perform update actions with side effects, and a scoping operator can be used to control the extent of the update. In this way it incorporates fundamental concepts both from imperative languages or concurrent constraints formalisms, and from functional ..."
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Cited by 72 (3 self)
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In the update calculus concurrent processes can perform update actions with side effects, and a scoping operator can be used to control the extent of the update. In this way it incorporates fundamental concepts both from imperative languages or concurrent constraints formalisms, and from functional formalisms such as the  and calculi. Structurally it is similar to but simpler than the calculus; it has only one binding operator and a symmetry between input and output. We define the structured operational semantics and the proper bisimulation equivalence and congruence, and give a complete axiomatization. The calculus turns out to be an asymmetric subcalculus. 1 Introduction Theory of concurrent computation is a diverse field where many different approaches have been proposed and no consensus has emerged on the best paradigms. In this paper we take a step towards unifying two seemingly contradictory schools of thought: global vs local effects of concurrent actions. We define a calc...
The πCalculus in Direct Style
, 1997
"... We introduce a calculus which is a direct extension of both the and the π calculi. We give a simple type system for it, that encompasses both Curry's type inference for the calculus, and Milner's sorting for the πcalculus as particular cases of typing. We observe that the various continuation pas ..."
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Cited by 64 (2 self)
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We introduce a calculus which is a direct extension of both the and the π calculi. We give a simple type system for it, that encompasses both Curry's type inference for the calculus, and Milner's sorting for the πcalculus as particular cases of typing. We observe that the various continuation passing style transformations for terms, written in our calculus, actually correspond to encodings already given by Milner and others for evaluation strategies of terms into the πcalculus. Furthermore, the associated sortings correspond to wellknown double negation translations on types. Finally we provide an adequate cps transform from our calculus to the πcalculus. This shows that the latter may be regarded as an "assembly language", while our calculus seems to provide a better programming notation for higherorder concurrency.
ObjectOriented Concurrent Constraint Programming in Oz
, 1993
"... Oz is a higherorder concurrent constraint programming system under development at DFKI. It combines ideas from logic and concurrent programming in a simple yet expressive language. From logic programming Oz inherits logic variables and logic data structures, which provide for a programming style wh ..."
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Cited by 56 (16 self)
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Oz is a higherorder concurrent constraint programming system under development at DFKI. It combines ideas from logic and concurrent programming in a simple yet expressive language. From logic programming Oz inherits logic variables and logic data structures, which provide for a programming style where partial information about the values of variables is imposed concurrently and incrementally. A novel feature of Oz is the support of higherorder programming without sacrificing that denotation and equality of variables are captured by firstorder logic. Another new feature of Oz are cells, a concurrent construct providing a minimal form of state fully compatible with logic data structures. These two features allow to express objects as procedures with state, avoiding the problems of stream communication, the conventional communication mechanism employed in concurrent logic programming. Based on cells and higherorder programming, Oz readily supports concurrent objectoriented programming including object identity, late method binding, multiple inheritance, "self", "super", batches, synchronous and asynchronous communication.
Encapsulated Search for Higherorder Concurrent Constraint Programming
 Logic Programming: Proceedings of the 1994 International Symposium
, 1994
"... The paper presents an extension of the concurrent constraint model providing for higherorder programming, deep guards, and encapsulated search. The paper focuses on a higherorder combinator providing for encapsulated search. The search combinator spawns a local computation space and resolves remai ..."
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Cited by 47 (13 self)
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The paper presents an extension of the concurrent constraint model providing for higherorder programming, deep guards, and encapsulated search. The paper focuses on a higherorder combinator providing for encapsulated search. The search combinator spawns a local computation space and resolves remaining choices by returning the alternatives as firstclass citizens. The search combinator allows to program different search strategies, including depthfirst, indeterministic one solution, demanddriven multiple solution, all solutions, and best solution (branch and bound) search. The described computation model is realized in Oz, a programming language and system under development at DFKI. Keywords Concurrent constraint programming, higherorder programming, encapsulated search, search strategies, Oz. 1 Introduction Oz [2, 3, 9, 8, 7, 1] is an attempt to create a highlevel concurrent programming language providing the problem solving capabilities of logic programming (i.e., constraints ...
Oz  A Programming Language for MultiAgent Systems
 In 13th International Joint Conference on Artificial Intelligence
, 1993
"... Oz is an experimental higherorder concurrent constraint programming system under development at DFKI. It combines ideas from logic and concurrent programming in a simple yet expressive language. From logic programming Oz inherits logic variables and logic data structures, which provide for a ..."
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Cited by 41 (7 self)
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Oz is an experimental higherorder concurrent constraint programming system under development at DFKI. It combines ideas from logic and concurrent programming in a simple yet expressive language. From logic programming Oz inherits logic variables and logic data structures, which provide for a programming style where partial information about the values of variables is imposed concurrently and incrementally. A novel feature of Oz is that it accommodates higherorder programming without sacrificing that denotation and equality of variables are captured by firstorder logic. Another new feature of Oz is constraint communication, a new form of asynchronous communication exploiting logic variables. Constraint communication avoids the problems of stream communication, the conventional communication mechanism employed in concurrent logic programming. Constraint communication can be seen as providing a minimal form of state fully compatible with logic data structures. Bas...
Encapsulated Search and Constraint Programming in Oz
, 1994
"... Oz is an attempt to create a highlevel concurrent programming language providing the problem solving capabilities of logic programming (i.e., constraints and search). Its computation model can be seen as a rather radical extension of the concurrent constraint model providing for higherorder pro ..."
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Cited by 36 (16 self)
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Oz is an attempt to create a highlevel concurrent programming language providing the problem solving capabilities of logic programming (i.e., constraints and search). Its computation model can be seen as a rather radical extension of the concurrent constraint model providing for higherorder programming, deep guards, state, and encapsulated search. This paper focuses on the most recent extension, a higherorder combinator providing for encapsulated search. The search combinator spawns a local computation space and resolves remaining choices by returning the alternatives as firstclass citizens. The search combinator allows to program different search strategies, including depthfirst, indeterministic one solution, demanddriven multiple solution, all solutions, and best solution (branch and bound) search. The paper also discusses the semantics of integer and finite domain constraints in a deep guard computation model.