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42
External Memory Data Structures
, 2001
"... In many massive dataset applications the data must be stored in space and query efficient data structures on external storage devices. Often the data needs to be changed dynamically. In this chapter we discuss recent advances in the development of provably worstcase efficient external memory dynami ..."
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Cited by 80 (35 self)
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In many massive dataset applications the data must be stored in space and query efficient data structures on external storage devices. Often the data needs to be changed dynamically. In this chapter we discuss recent advances in the development of provably worstcase efficient external memory dynamic data structures. We also briefly discuss some of the most popular external data structures used in practice.
On approximating the depth and related problems
 SIAM J. COMPUT
, 2008
"... We study the question of finding a deepest point in an arrangement of regions, and provide a fast algorithm for this problem using random sampling, showing it sufficient to solve this problem when the deepest point is shallow. This implies, among other results, a fast algorithm for solving linear pr ..."
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Cited by 72 (14 self)
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We study the question of finding a deepest point in an arrangement of regions, and provide a fast algorithm for this problem using random sampling, showing it sufficient to solve this problem when the deepest point is shallow. This implies, among other results, a fast algorithm for solving linear programming with violations approximately. We also use this technique to approximate the disk covering the largest number of red points, while avoiding all the blue points, given two such sets in the plane. Using similar techniques imply that approximate range counting queries have roughly the same time and space complexity as emptiness range queries.
Efficient Searching with Linear Constraints (Extended Abstract)
"... ) Pankaj K. Agarwal Lars Arge y Jeff Erickson z Paolo G. Franciosa x Jeffrey Scott Vitter  Abstract We show how to preprocess a set S of points in R d to get an external memory data structure that efficiently supports linearconstraint queries. Each query is in the form of a linear c ..."
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Cited by 58 (16 self)
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) Pankaj K. Agarwal Lars Arge y Jeff Erickson z Paolo G. Franciosa x Jeffrey Scott Vitter  Abstract We show how to preprocess a set S of points in R d to get an external memory data structure that efficiently supports linearconstraint queries. Each query is in the form of a linear constraint a \Delta x b; the data structure must report all the points of S that satisfy the query. Our goal is to minimize the number of disk blocks required to store the data structure and the number of disk accesses (I/Os) required to answer a query. For d = 2, we present the first nearlinear size data structures that can answer linearconstraint queries using an optimal number of I/Os. We also present a linearsize data structure that can answer queries efficiently in the worst case. We combine these two approaches to obtain tradeoffs between space and query time. Finally, we show that some of our techniques extend to higher dimensions d. Center for Geometric Computing, Computer...
LowDimensional Linear Programming with Violations
 In Proc. 43th Annu. IEEE Sympos. Found. Comput. Sci
, 2002
"... Two decades ago, Megiddo and Dyer showed that linear programming in 2 and 3 dimensions (and subsequently, any constant number of dimensions) can be solved in linear time. In this paper, we consider linear programming with at most k violations: finding a point inside all but at most k of n given half ..."
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Cited by 46 (3 self)
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Two decades ago, Megiddo and Dyer showed that linear programming in 2 and 3 dimensions (and subsequently, any constant number of dimensions) can be solved in linear time. In this paper, we consider linear programming with at most k violations: finding a point inside all but at most k of n given halfspaces. We give a simple algorithm in 2d that runs in O((n + k ) log n) expected time; this is faster than earlier algorithms by Everett, Robert, and van Kreveld (1993) and Matousek (1994) and is probably nearoptimal for all k n=2. A (theoretical) extension of our algorithm in 3d runs in near O(n + k ) expected time. Interestingly, the idea is based on concavechain decompositions (or covers) of the ( k)level, previously used in proving combinatorial klevel bounds.
Dynamic Planar Convex Hull Operations in NearLogarithmic Amortized Time
 JOURNAL OF THE ACM
, 1999
"... We give a data structure that allows arbitrary insertions and deletions on a planar point set P and supports basic queries on the convex hull of P , such as membership and tangentfinding. Updates take O(log 1+" n) amortized time and queries take O(log n) time each, where n is the maximum siz ..."
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Cited by 41 (6 self)
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We give a data structure that allows arbitrary insertions and deletions on a planar point set P and supports basic queries on the convex hull of P , such as membership and tangentfinding. Updates take O(log 1+" n) amortized time and queries take O(log n) time each, where n is the maximum size of P and " is any fixed positive constant. For some advanced queries such as bridgefinding, both our bounds increase to O(log 3=2 n). The only previous fully dynamic solution was by Overmars and van Leeuwen from 1981 and required O(log 2 n) time per update. 1 Introduction Although the algorithmic study of convex hulls is as old as computational geometry itself, the basic problem of optimally maintaining the planar convex hull under insertions and deletions of points [30, 34] remains unsolved and has been regarded by some as one of the foremost open problems in the area [14, 26]. Besides its natural appeal, such a dynamic data structure has a wide range of applications, as it is often us...
On Range Reporting, Ray Shooting and klevel Construction
"... We describe the following data structures. For halfspace range reporting, in 3space using expected preprocessing time O(n log n), worstcase storage O(n log log n) and worstcase reporting time O(log n + k), where n is the number of data points and k the number of points reported; in dspace, with ..."
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Cited by 29 (0 self)
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We describe the following data structures. For halfspace range reporting, in 3space using expected preprocessing time O(n log n), worstcase storage O(n log log n) and worstcase reporting time O(log n + k), where n is the number of data points and k the number of points reported; in dspace, with d even, using worstcase preprocessing time O(n log n), storage O(n) and reporting time O(n 1 1=bd=2c log c n + k), where c is a constant. For ray shooting in a convex polytope in dspace determined by n facets, using deterministic preprocessing time O((n= log n) bd=2c log c n) and storage O((n= log n) bd=2c 2 c log n ) and with query time O(log n). For ray shooting in arbitrary direction among n hyperplanes using preprocessing O(n d = log bd=2c n) and query time O(log n). We also describe a randomized algorithm for constructing the klevel of n planes in 3space. In the case of planes dual to points in convex position, in which the size of the klevel is O(nk), the a...
On approximate range counting and depth
 In Proc. 23rd Annu. ACM Sympos. Comput. Geom
, 2007
"... ABSTRACT We improve the previous results by Aronov and HarPeled (SODA'05) and Kaplan and Sharir (SODA'06) and present a randomized data structure of O(n) expected size which can answer 3D approximate halfspace range counting queries in O(log n k) expected time, where k is the actual value ..."
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Cited by 25 (1 self)
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ABSTRACT We improve the previous results by Aronov and HarPeled (SODA'05) and Kaplan and Sharir (SODA'06) and present a randomized data structure of O(n) expected size which can answer 3D approximate halfspace range counting queries in O(log n k) expected time, where k is the actual value of the count. This is the first optimal method for the problem in the standard decision tree model; moreover, unlike previous methods, the new method is Las Vegas instead of Monte Carlo. In addition, we describe new results for several related problems, including approximate Tukey depth queries in 3D, approximate regression depth queries in 2D, and approximate linear programming with violations in low dimensions. Categories and Subject Descriptors F.2.2 [Analysis of Algorithms and Problem Complexity]: Nonnumerical Algorithms and Problemsgeometrical problems and computations
Transdichotomous Results in Computational Geometry, I: Point Location in Sublogarithmic Time
, 2008
"... Given a planar subdivision whose coordinates are integers bounded by U ≤ 2 w, we present a linearspace data structure that can answer point location queries in O(min{lg n / lg lg n, √ lg U/lg lg U}) time on the unitcost RAM with word size w. Thisisthe first result to beat the standard Θ(lg n) bou ..."
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Cited by 21 (4 self)
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Given a planar subdivision whose coordinates are integers bounded by U ≤ 2 w, we present a linearspace data structure that can answer point location queries in O(min{lg n / lg lg n, √ lg U/lg lg U}) time on the unitcost RAM with word size w. Thisisthe first result to beat the standard Θ(lg n) bound for infinite precision models. As a consequence, we obtain the first o(n lg n) (randomized) algorithms for many fundamental problems in computational geometry for arbitrary integer input on the word RAM, including: constructing the convex hull of a threedimensional point set, computing the Voronoi diagram or the Euclidean minimum spanning tree of a planar point set, triangulating a polygon with holes, and finding intersections among a set of line segments. Higherdimensional extensions and applications are also discussed. Though computational geometry with bounded precision input has been investigated for a long time, improvements have been limited largely to problems of an orthogonal flavor. Our results surpass this longstanding limitation, answering, for example, a question of Willard (SODA’92).
Indexing uncertain data
, 2009
"... Querying uncertain data has emerged as an important problem in data management due to the imprecise nature of many measurement data. In this paper we study answering range queries over uncertain data. Specifically, we are given a collection P of n points in R, each represented by its onedimensional ..."
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Cited by 20 (3 self)
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Querying uncertain data has emerged as an important problem in data management due to the imprecise nature of many measurement data. In this paper we study answering range queries over uncertain data. Specifically, we are given a collection P of n points in R, each represented by its onedimensional probability density function (pdf). The goal is to build an index on P such that given a query interval I and a probability threshold τ, we can quickly report all points of P that lie in I with probability at least τ. We present various indexing schemes with linear or nearlinear space and logarithmic query time. Our schemes support pdf’s that are either histograms or more complex ones such as Gaussian or piecewise algebraic. They also extend to the external memory model in which the goal is to minimize the number of disk accesses when querying the index.
Randomized incremental construction of threedimensional convex hulls and planar Voronoi diagrams, and approximate range counting
 in Proceedings of the Seventeenth Annual ACMSIAM Symposium on Discrete Algorithms
, 2006
"... We present new algorithms for approximate range counting, where, for a specified ε> 0, we want to count the number of data points in a query range, up to relative error of ε. We first describe a general framework, adapted from Cohen [12], for this task, and then specialize it to two important ins ..."
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Cited by 19 (7 self)
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We present new algorithms for approximate range counting, where, for a specified ε> 0, we want to count the number of data points in a query range, up to relative error of ε. We first describe a general framework, adapted from Cohen [12], for this task, and then specialize it to two important instances of range counting: halfspaces in R 3 and disks in the plane. The technique reduces the approximate range counting problem to that of finding the minimum rank of a data object in the range, with respect to a random permutation of the input. A major technical step in our analysis, which we believe to be of independent interest, is a bound of O(n log n) on the expected complexity of the overlay of all the Voronoi faces that are generated during a randomized incremental construction of the Voronoi diagram of n points in the plane. The same bound holds for the expected complexity of the overlay of all the faces of the minimization diagram of the lower envelope of n planes in R 3, or for the expected complexity of the overlay of all the normal (or Gaussian) diagram faces of the convex hull of n points in R 3, that are generated during a randomized incremental construction of the lower envelope or of the hull, respectively. All these bounds are tight in the worst case.