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181
Stochastic Volatility for Lévy Processes
, 2001
"... Three processes re°ecting persistence of volatility are initially formulated by evaluating three L¶evy processes at a time change given by the integral of a mean reverting square root process. The model for the mean reverting time change is then generalized to include NonGaussian models that are so ..."
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Cited by 100 (8 self)
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Three processes re°ecting persistence of volatility are initially formulated by evaluating three L¶evy processes at a time change given by the integral of a mean reverting square root process. The model for the mean reverting time change is then generalized to include NonGaussian models that are solutions to OU (OrnsteinUhlenbeck) equations driven by one sided discontinuous L¶evy processes permitting correlation with the stock. Positive stock price processes are obtained by exponentiating and mean correcting these processes, or alternatively by stochastically exponentiating these processes. The characteristic functions for the log price can be used to yield option prices via the fast Fourier transform. In general, mean corrected exponentiation performs better than employing the stochastic exponential. It is observed that the mean corrected exponential model is not a martingale in the ¯ltration in which it is originally de¯ned. This leads us to formulate and investigate the important property of martingale marginals where we seek martingales in altered ¯ltrations consistent with the one dimensional marginal distributions of the level of the process at each future date. 1
TimeChanged Lévy Processes and Option Pricing
, 2002
"... As is well known, the classic BlackScholes option pricing model assumes that returns follow Brownian motion. It is widely recognized that return processes differ from this benchmark in at least three important ways. First, asset prices jump, leading to nonnormal return innovations. Second, return ..."
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Cited by 89 (12 self)
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As is well known, the classic BlackScholes option pricing model assumes that returns follow Brownian motion. It is widely recognized that return processes differ from this benchmark in at least three important ways. First, asset prices jump, leading to nonnormal return innovations. Second, return volatilities vary stochastically over time. Third, returns and their volatilities are correlated, often negatively for equities. We propose that timechanged Lévy processes be used to simultaneously address these three facets of the underlying asset return process. We show that our framework encompasses almost all of the models proposed in the option pricing literature. Despite the generality of our approach, we show that it is straightforward to select and test a particular option pricing model through the use of characteristic function technology.
The Finite Moment Log Stable Process and Option Pricing
, 2002
"... We document a surprising pattern in market prices of S&P 500 index options. When implied volatilities are graphed against a standard measure of moneyness, the implied volatility smirk does not flatten out as maturity increases up to the observable horizon of two years. This behavior contrasts sharpl ..."
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Cited by 51 (9 self)
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We document a surprising pattern in market prices of S&P 500 index options. When implied volatilities are graphed against a standard measure of moneyness, the implied volatility smirk does not flatten out as maturity increases up to the observable horizon of two years. This behavior contrasts sharply with the implications of many pricing models and with the asymptotic behavior implied by the central limit theorem (CLT). We develop a parsimonious model which deliberately violates the CLT assumptions and thus captures the observed behavior of the volatility smirk over the maturity horizon. Calibration exercises demonstrate its superior performance against several widely used alternatives.
C.W.: A novel pricing method for European options based on Fouriercosine series expansions
 SIAM J. Sci. Comput
, 2008
"... Abstract. Here we develop an option pricing method for European options based on the Fouriercosine series, and call it the COS method. The key insight is in the close relation of the characteristic function with the series coefficients of the Fouriercosine expansion of the density function. In mos ..."
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Cited by 30 (12 self)
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Abstract. Here we develop an option pricing method for European options based on the Fouriercosine series, and call it the COS method. The key insight is in the close relation of the characteristic function with the series coefficients of the Fouriercosine expansion of the density function. In most cases, the convergence rate of the COS method is exponential and the computational complexity is linear. Its range of application covers different underlying dynamics, including Lévy processes and the Heston stochastic volatility model, and various types of option contracts. We will present the method and its applications in two separate parts. The first one is this paper, where we deal with European options in particular. In a followup paper we will present its application to options with earlyexercise features.
Stock Options and Credit Default Swaps: A Joint Framework for Valuation and Estimation
 JOURNAL OF FINANCIAL ECONOMETRICS, 2009, 1–41
, 2009
"... We propose a dynamically consistent framework that allows joint valuation and estimation of stock options and credit default swaps written on the same reference company. We model default as controlled by a Cox process with a stochastic arrival rate. When default occurs, the stock price drops to zero ..."
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Cited by 29 (4 self)
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We propose a dynamically consistent framework that allows joint valuation and estimation of stock options and credit default swaps written on the same reference company. We model default as controlled by a Cox process with a stochastic arrival rate. When default occurs, the stock price drops to zero. Prior to default, the stock price follows a jumpdiffusion process with stochastic volatility. The instantaneous default rate and variance rate follow a bivariate continuous process, with its joint dynamics specified to capture the observed behavior of stock option prices and credit default swap spreads. Under this joint specification, we propose a tractable valuation methodology for stock options and credit default swaps. We estimate the joint risk dynamics using data from both markets for eight companies that span five sectors and six major credit rating classes from B to AAA. The estimation highlights the interaction between market risk (return variance) and credit risk (default arrival) in pricing stock options and credit default swaps.
Specification Analysis of Option Pricing Models Based on TimeChanged Lévy Processes
, 2003
"... We analyze the specifications of option pricing models based on timechanged Lévy processes. We classify option pricing models based on the structure of the jump component in the underlying return process, the source of stochastic volatility, and the specification of the volatility process itself. O ..."
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Cited by 28 (3 self)
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We analyze the specifications of option pricing models based on timechanged Lévy processes. We classify option pricing models based on the structure of the jump component in the underlying return process, the source of stochastic volatility, and the specification of the volatility process itself. Our estimation of a variety of model specifications indicates that to better capture the behavior of the S&P 500 index options, we must incorporate a high frequency jump component in the return process and generate stochastic volatilities from two different sources, the jump component and the diffusion component.
Meixner Processes in Finance
, 2001
"... In the BlackScholes option price model Brownian motion and the underlying Normal distribution play a fundamental role. Empirical evidence however shows that the normal distribution is a very poor model to fit reallife data. In order to achieve a better fit we replace the Brownian motion by a speci ..."
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Cited by 23 (5 self)
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In the BlackScholes option price model Brownian motion and the underlying Normal distribution play a fundamental role. Empirical evidence however shows that the normal distribution is a very poor model to fit reallife data. In order to achieve a better fit we replace the Brownian motion by a special Levy process: the Meixner process. We show that the underlying Meixner distribution allows an almost perfect fit to the data by performing a number of statistical tests. We discuss properties of the driving Meixner process. Next, we give a valuation formula for derivative securities, state the analogue of the BlackScholes di#erential equation, and compare the obtained prices with the classical BlackScholes prices. Throughout the text the method is illustrated by the modeling of the Nikkei225 Index. Similar analysis for other indices are given in the appendix. 1
Fast deterministic pricing of options on Lévy driven assets
 M2AN Math. Model. Numer. Anal
, 2002
"... A partial integrodifferential equation (PIDE) ∂tu + A[u] = 0 for European contracts on assets with general jumpdiffusion price process of Lévy type is derived. The PIDE is localized to bounded domains and the error due to this localization is estimated. The localized PIDE is discretized by the θ ..."
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Cited by 21 (3 self)
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A partial integrodifferential equation (PIDE) ∂tu + A[u] = 0 for European contracts on assets with general jumpdiffusion price process of Lévy type is derived. The PIDE is localized to bounded domains and the error due to this localization is estimated. The localized PIDE is discretized by the θscheme in time and a wavelet Galerkin method with N degrees of freedom in space. The full Galerkin matrix for A can be replaced with a sparse matrix in the wavelet basis, and the linear systems for each time step are solved approximatively with GMRES in linear complexity. The total work of the algorithm for M time steps is bounded by O(MN(ln N) 2) operations and O(N ln(N)) memory. The deterministic algorithm gives optimal convergence rates (up to logarithmic terms) for the computed solution in the same complexity as finite difference approximations of the standard BlackScholes equation. Computational examples for various Lévy price processes (VG, CGMY) are presented. 1
Stochastic risk premiums, stochastic skewness in currency options, and stochastic discount factors in international economies
 Journal of Financial Economics
, 2007
"... We develop models of stochastic discount factors in international economies that produce stochastic risk premiums and stochastic skewness in currency options. We estimate the models using timeseries returns and option prices on three currency pairs that form a triangular relation. Estimation shows ..."
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Cited by 19 (1 self)
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We develop models of stochastic discount factors in international economies that produce stochastic risk premiums and stochastic skewness in currency options. We estimate the models using timeseries returns and option prices on three currency pairs that form a triangular relation. Estimation shows that the average risk premium in Japan is larger than that in the US or the UK, the global risk premium is more persistent and volatile than the countryspecific risk premiums, and investors respond differently to different shocks. We also identify highfrequency jumps in each economy, but find that only downside jumps are priced. Finally, our analysis shows that the risk premiums are economically compatible with movements in stock and bond market fundamentals.