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Termination in Timed Process Algebra
 Formal Aspects of Computing
, 2000
"... We investigate different forms of termination in timed process algebras. The integrated framework of discrete and dense time, relative and absolute time process algebras is extended with forms of successful and unsuccessful termination. The different algebras are interrelated by embeddings and conse ..."
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Cited by 169 (25 self)
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We investigate different forms of termination in timed process algebras. The integrated framework of discrete and dense time, relative and absolute time process algebras is extended with forms of successful and unsuccessful termination. The different algebras are interrelated by embeddings and conservative extensions.
A tutorial on EMPA: A theory of concurrent processes with nondeterminism, priorities, probabilities and time
 Theoretical Computer Science
, 1998
"... In this tutorial we give an overview of the process algebra EMPA, a calculus devised in order to model and analyze features of realworld concurrent systems such as nondeterminism, priorities, probabilities and time, with a particular emphasis on performance evaluation. The purpose of this tutorial ..."
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Cited by 118 (11 self)
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In this tutorial we give an overview of the process algebra EMPA, a calculus devised in order to model and analyze features of realworld concurrent systems such as nondeterminism, priorities, probabilities and time, with a particular emphasis on performance evaluation. The purpose of this tutorial is to explain the design choices behind the development of EMPA and how the four features above interact, and to show that a reasonable trade off between the expressive power of the calculus and the complexity of its underlying theory has been achieved.
Process Algebra for Performance Evaluation
, 2000
"... This paper surveys the theoretical developments in the field of stochastic process algebras, process algebras where action occurrences may be subject to a delay that is determined by a random variable. A huge class of resourcesharing systems  like largescale computers, clientserver architectur ..."
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Cited by 70 (13 self)
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This paper surveys the theoretical developments in the field of stochastic process algebras, process algebras where action occurrences may be subject to a delay that is determined by a random variable. A huge class of resourcesharing systems  like largescale computers, clientserver architectures, networks  can accurately be described using such stochastic specification formalisms.
Testing Semantics for Probabilistic LOTOS
, 1995
"... In this paper we present a probabilistic extension of LOTOS which is upward compatible with LOTOS. We present testing semantics for the reactive and generative models described in [vGSST90]. While there is a certain lose of the meaning of probabilities in the reactive model, testing with probabilist ..."
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Cited by 11 (7 self)
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In this paper we present a probabilistic extension of LOTOS which is upward compatible with LOTOS. We present testing semantics for the reactive and generative models described in [vGSST90]. While there is a certain lose of the meaning of probabilities in the reactive model, testing with probabilistic tests proves to be too strong, because it does not relate behavior expressions which we expect to be equivalent. This is why we introduce the limited generative model, where tests are not allowed to have explicit probabilities. We give a fully abstract characterization for the reactive model, while we give alternative characterizations (based on a set of essential tests) for the generative and limited generative models. We also present some algebraic laws for each of the models, including some laws which establish the difference between the three models.
P.R.: General distributions in process algebra. In: Lectures on formal methods and performance analysis: first EEF/Euro summer school on trends in computer science
, 2002
"... Abstract. This paper is an informal tutorial on stochastic process algebras, i.e., process calculi where action occurrences may be subject to a delay that is governed by a (mostly continuous) random variable. Whereas most stochastic process algebras consider delays determined by negative exponenti ..."
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Cited by 9 (1 self)
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Abstract. This paper is an informal tutorial on stochastic process algebras, i.e., process calculi where action occurrences may be subject to a delay that is governed by a (mostly continuous) random variable. Whereas most stochastic process algebras consider delays determined by negative exponential distributions, this tutorial is concerned with the integration of general, nonexponential distributions into a process algebraic setting. We discuss the issue of incorporating such distributions in an interleaving semantics, and present some existing solutions to this problem. In particular, we present a process algebra for the specification of stochastic discreteevent systems modeled as generalized semiMarkov chains (GSMCs). Using this language stochastic discreteevent systems can be described in an abstract and modular way. The operational semantics of this process algebra is given in terms of stochastic automata, a novel mixture of timed automata and GSMCs. We show that GSMCs are a proper subset of stochastic automata, discuss various notions of equivalence, present congruence results, treat equational reasoning, and argue how an expansion law in the process algebra can be obtained. As a case study, we specify the root contention phase within the standardized IEEE 1394 serial bus protocol and study the delay until root contention resolution. An overview of related work on general distributions in process algebra and a discussion of trends and future work complete this tutorial. 1
Partial Order Models for Quantitative Extensions of LOTOS
, 1997
"... Event structures are a prominent model for noninterleaving concurrency. The use of event structures for providing a compositional noninterleaving semantics to LOTOS without data is studied. In particular, several quantitative extensions of event structures are proposed that incorporate notions lik ..."
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Cited by 3 (1 self)
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Event structures are a prominent model for noninterleaving concurrency. The use of event structures for providing a compositional noninterleaving semantics to LOTOS without data is studied. In particular, several quantitative extensions of event structures are proposed that incorporate notions like timeboth of deterministic and stochastic natureand probability. The suitability of these models for giving a noninterleaving semantics to a timed, stochastic and probabilistic extension of LOTOS is investigated. Consistency between the event structure semantics and an (eventbased) operational semantics is addressed for the different quantitative variants of LOTOS and is worked out for the timed case in more detail. These consistency results facilitate the coherent use of an interleaving and a noninterleaving semantic view in a single design trajectory and provide a justification for the event structure semantics. As a running example an infinite buffer is used in which gradually t...
Verification of LOTOS Specifications using Term Rewriting Techniques
, 1994
"... Recently the use of formal methods in describing and analysing the behaviour of (computer) systems has become more common. This has resulted in the proliferation of a wide variety of different specification formalisms, together with analytical techniques and methodologies for specification developme ..."
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Cited by 2 (2 self)
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Recently the use of formal methods in describing and analysing the behaviour of (computer) systems has become more common. This has resulted in the proliferation of a wide variety of different specification formalisms, together with analytical techniques and methodologies for specification development. The particular specification formalism adopted for this study is LOTOS, an ISO standard formal description technique. Although there are many works dealing with how to write LOTOS specifications and how to develop a LOTOS specification from the initial abstract requirements specification to concrete implementation, relatively few works are concerned with the problems of expressing and proving the correctness of LOTOS specifications, i.e. verification. The main objective of this thesis is to address this shortfall by investigating the meaning of verification as it relates to concurrent systems in general, and in particular to those systems described using LOTOS. Further goals are to autom...
Developing Utility Theory To Support The Formal Design Of SafetyCritical Systems
"... Regulatory bodies, such as the United Kingdom's Health and Safety Executive and the United States' Nuclear Regulatory Commission, must ensure that complex production processes conform to stringent safety standards. Risk assessment techniques provide companies with means of demonstrating th ..."
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Cited by 1 (0 self)
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Regulatory bodies, such as the United Kingdom's Health and Safety Executive and the United States' Nuclear Regulatory Commission, must ensure that complex production processes conform to stringent safety standards. Risk assessment techniques provide companies with means of demonstrating that applications fulfill these requirements. Traditionally, there has been little interaction between risk analysis and software engineering. There are a number of reasons for this separation of concerns. Risk assessment procedures cannot easily be applied to support software engineering. The failure rates that are used to analyse hardware components cannot accurately describe the failure of software components. It is important to realise, however, that the products of risk analysis have a profound impact upon software engineering. Risk assessment is a central stage in requirements elicitation. The following paper argues that formal specification techniques can be recruited to support the integration o...
Specifying and Verifying the Alternating Bit Protocol with ProbabilisticTimed LOTOS
, 1996
"... In this paper we use a probabilistictimed version of Lotos (PTLotos) for specifying and verifying the Alternating Bit Protocol (ABP). First, we present the language which is an upward compatible version of Lotos where some new operators to deal with time and probabilistic features have been include ..."
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In this paper we use a probabilistictimed version of Lotos (PTLotos) for specifying and verifying the Alternating Bit Protocol (ABP). First, we present the language which is an upward compatible version of Lotos where some new operators to deal with time and probabilistic features have been included. We give an operational semantics, where there are two kinds of transitions: probabilistic transitions and timed transitions. Transitions of the first kind are associated with the events that a behavior expression can execute, while timed transitions deal with time evolution. From this operational semantics we define a testing semantics, where a process passes a test with a probability in a period of time, and two processes are intended to be equivalent if they pass all the tests with the same probability for any time. In the second part of the paper, we use PTLotos in order to specify the Alternating Bit Protocol. The ABP is a simple communication protocol which provides an error free co...