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26
Bisimulation through probabilistic testing
 in “Conference Record of the 16th ACM Symposium on Principles of Programming Languages (POPL
, 1989
"... We propose a language for testing concurrent processes and examine its strength in terms of the processes that are distinguished by a test. By using probabilistic transition systems as the underlying semantic model, we show how a testing algorithm can distinguish, with a probability arbitrarily clos ..."
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Cited by 405 (5 self)
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We propose a language for testing concurrent processes and examine its strength in terms of the processes that are distinguished by a test. By using probabilistic transition systems as the underlying semantic model, we show how a testing algorithm can distinguish, with a probability arbitrarily close to one, between processes that are not bisimulation equivalent. We also show a similar result (in a slightly stronger form) for a new process relation called $bisimulationwhich lies strictly between that of simulation and bisimulation. Finally, the ultimately strength of the testing language is shown to identify a new process relation called probabilistic bisimulationwhich is strictly stronger than bisimulation. li? 1991 Academic Press. Inc. 1.
An Implementation of an Efficient Algorithm for Bisimulation Equivalence
 Science of Computer Programming
, 1989
"... We present an efficient algorithm for bisimulation equivalence. Generally, bisimulation equivalence can be tested in O(mn) for a labeled transition system with m transitions and n states. In order to come up with a more efficient algorithm, we establish a relationship between bisimulation equivalenc ..."
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Cited by 87 (7 self)
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We present an efficient algorithm for bisimulation equivalence. Generally, bisimulation equivalence can be tested in O(mn) for a labeled transition system with m transitions and n states. In order to come up with a more efficient algorithm, we establish a relationship between bisimulation equivalence and the relational coarsest partition problem, solved by Paige & Tarjan in O(m log n) time. Given an initial partition and a binary relation, the problem is to find the coarsest partition compatible with them. Computing bisimulation equivalence can be viewed both as an instance and as a generalization of this problem: an instance, because only the universal partition is considered as an initial partition and a generalization since we want to find a partition compatible with a family of binary relations instead of one single binary relation. We describe how we have adapted the Paige & Tarjan algorithm of complexity O(m log n) to minimize labeled transition systems modulo bisimulation equivalence. This algorithm has been implemented in C and is used in Aldebaran, a tool for the verification of concurrent systems.
A Naïve Time Analysis and its Theory of Cost Equivalence
 Journal of Logic and Computation
, 1995
"... Techniques for reasoning about extensional properties of functional programs are well understood, but methods for analysing the underlying intensional or operational properties have been much neglected. This paper begins with the development of a simple but useful calculus for time analysis of nons ..."
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Cited by 39 (7 self)
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Techniques for reasoning about extensional properties of functional programs are well understood, but methods for analysing the underlying intensional or operational properties have been much neglected. This paper begins with the development of a simple but useful calculus for time analysis of nonstrict functional programs with lazy lists. One limitation of this basic calculus is that the ordinary equational reasoning on functional programs is not valid. In order to buy back some of these equational properties we develop a nonstandard operational equivalence relation called cost equivalence, by considering the number of computation steps as an `observable' component of the evaluation process. We define this relation by analogy with Park's definition of bisimulation in CCS. This formulation allows us to show that cost equivalence is a contextual congruence (and thus is substitutive with respect to the basic calculus) and provides useful proof techniques for establishing costequivalen...
The Use of Static Constructs in A Modal Process Logic
, 1989
"... this paper we want to demonstrate that  from a practical ..."
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Cited by 24 (12 self)
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this paper we want to demonstrate that  from a practical
Onthefly Verification of Finite Transition Systems
, 1993
"... The analysis of programs by the exhaustive inspection of reachable states in a finite state graph is a wellunderstood procedure. It is straightforwardly applicable to many description languages and is actually implemented in several industrial tools. But one of the main limitations of today's v ..."
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Cited by 12 (2 self)
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The analysis of programs by the exhaustive inspection of reachable states in a finite state graph is a wellunderstood procedure. It is straightforwardly applicable to many description languages and is actually implemented in several industrial tools. But one of the main limitations of today's verification tools is the size of the memory needed to exhaustively build the state graphs of the programs. For numerous properties, it is not necessary to explicitly build this graph and an exhaustive depthfirst traversal is often sufficient. This leads to an online algorithms for computing Buchi acceptance (in the deterministic case) and behavioral equivalences: they are presented in detail. In order to avoid retraversing states, it is however important to store some of the already visited states in memory. To keep the memory size bounded (and avoid a performance falling down), visited states are randomly replaced. In most cases this depthfirst traversal with replacement ca...
SOS formats and metatheory: 20 years after
, 2007
"... In 1981 Structural Operational Semantics (SOS) was introduced as a systematic way to define operational semantics of programming languages by a set of rules of a certain shape [G.D. Plotkin, A structural approach to operational semantics, Technical ..."
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Cited by 12 (5 self)
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In 1981 Structural Operational Semantics (SOS) was introduced as a systematic way to define operational semantics of programming languages by a set of rules of a certain shape [G.D. Plotkin, A structural approach to operational semantics, Technical
Dynamic Scheduling in the Presence of Faults: Specification and Verification
 Proceedings of 4th International Symposium on Formal Techniques in RealTime and FaultTolerant Systems, Lecture Notes in Computer Science 1135
, 1996
"... A distributed realtime program is usually executed on a limited set of hardware resources and is required to satisfy timing constraints, despite anticipated hardware failures. Static analysis of the timing properties of such programs is often infeasible. This paper shows how to formally reason abou ..."
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Cited by 9 (6 self)
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A distributed realtime program is usually executed on a limited set of hardware resources and is required to satisfy timing constraints, despite anticipated hardware failures. Static analysis of the timing properties of such programs is often infeasible. This paper shows how to formally reason about these programs when scheduling decisions are made online and take into account deadlines, load and hardware failures. We use Timed CCS as a process language, define a language to describe anticipated faults and apply a version of a calculus to specify and verify timing properties. This allows the property of schedulability to be the outcome of an equationsolving problem. And unlike conventional reasoning, the logic is faultmonotonic: if correctness is proved for a number of faults, correctness for any subset of these faults is guaranteed. Tomasz Janowski is a Research Fellow of UNU/IIST. He got his MSc in Mathematics from the University of Gda'nsk (Poland) and PhD in Computer Science ...
Compositionality of HennessyMilner logic through structural operational semantics
 Huang and M. E. Glicksman, Acta Met
, 2003
"... Abstract. This paper presents a method for the decomposition of HML formulae. It can be used to decide whether a process algebra term satisfies a HML formula, by checking whether subterms satisfy certain formulae, obtained by decomposing the original formula. The method uses the structural operation ..."
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Cited by 8 (1 self)
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Abstract. This paper presents a method for the decomposition of HML formulae. It can be used to decide whether a process algebra term satisfies a HML formula, by checking whether subterms satisfy certain formulae, obtained by decomposing the original formula. The method uses the structural operational semantics of the process algebra. The main contribution of this paper is that an earlier decomposition method from Larsen [14] for the De Simone format is extended to the more general ntyft/ntyxt format without lookahead. 1