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39
Learning and the Emergence of Coordinated Communication
, 1997
"... this paper is on procedures whereby new (e.g., juvenile) members of a population could learn to communicate with the other members by observing their communicative behavior. Two apparently distinct issues are relevant to the evaluation of such learning procedures. First, the procedure must enable th ..."
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Cited by 35 (1 self)
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this paper is on procedures whereby new (e.g., juvenile) members of a population could learn to communicate with the other members by observing their communicative behavior. Two apparently distinct issues are relevant to the evaluation of such learning procedures. First, the procedure must enable the new members to accurately acquire the communication system of the population, even though their observations may be limited, noisy, or otherwise misleading. Second, the learning procedure used by its new members will affect the population's communication system over time. The use of a particular procedure might result in the population's communication increasing in coordination, ultimately yielding a nearly optimally coordinated system. If a learning procedure were to satisfy both criteria, it could explain how learned communication systems are maintained over time, as well as how they are established in the first place.
Fast, frugal, and rational: How rational norms explain behavior
 ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOR AND HUMAN DECISION PROCESSES
, 2003
"... Much research on judgment and decision making has focussed on the adequacy of classical rationality as a description of human reasoning. But more recently it has been argued that classical rationality should also be rejected even as normative standards for human reasoning. For example, Gigerenzer an ..."
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Cited by 33 (1 self)
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Much research on judgment and decision making has focussed on the adequacy of classical rationality as a description of human reasoning. But more recently it has been argued that classical rationality should also be rejected even as normative standards for human reasoning. For example, Gigerenzer and Goldstein (1996) and Gigerenzer and Todd (1999a) argue that reasoning involves ‘‘fast and frugal’ ’ algorithms which are not justified by rational norms, but which succeed in the environment. They provide three lines of argument for this view, based on: (A) the importance of the environment; (B) the existence of cognitive limitations; and (C) the fact that an algorithm with no apparent rational basis, TaketheBest, succeeds in an judgment task (judging which of two cities is the larger, based on lists of features of each city). We reconsider (A)–(C), arguing that standard patterns of explanation in psychology and the social and biological sciences, use rational norms to explain why simple cognitive algorithms can succeed. We also present new computer simulations that compare TaketheBest with other cognitive models (which use connectionist, exemplarbased, and decisiontree algorithms). Although TaketheBest still performs well, it does not perform noticeably better than the other models. We conclude that these results provide no strong reason to prefer TaketheBest over alternative cognitive models.
Signalling games select Horn strategies
"... In this paper I will discuss why (un) marked expressions typically get an (un)marked interpretation: Horn's division of pragmatic labor. It is argued that it is a conventional fact the we use language this way. This convention will be explained in terms of equilibria of signalling games int ..."
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Cited by 19 (2 self)
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In this paper I will discuss why (un) marked expressions typically get an (un)marked interpretation: Horn's division of pragmatic labor. It is argued that it is a conventional fact the we use language this way. This convention will be explained in terms of equilibria of signalling games introduced by Lewis (1969) but now in an evolutionary setting. I will also relate this signalling game analysis with Blutner's (2000) bidirectional optimality theory and with Parikh's (1991, 2000) gametheoretical analysis of successful communication.
Game Relativity: How Context Influences Strategic Decision Making
"... Existing models of strategic decision making typically assume that only the attributes of the currently played game need be considered when reaching a decision. The results presented in this article demonstrate that the socalled “cooperativeness ” of the previously played prisoner’s dilemma games i ..."
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Cited by 12 (4 self)
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Existing models of strategic decision making typically assume that only the attributes of the currently played game need be considered when reaching a decision. The results presented in this article demonstrate that the socalled “cooperativeness ” of the previously played prisoner’s dilemma games influence choices and predictions in the current prisoner’s dilemma game, which suggests that games are not considered independently. These effects involved reinforcementbased assimilation to the previous choices and also a perceptual contrast of the present game with preceding games, depending on the range and the rank of their cooperativeness. A. Parducci’s (1965) range frequency theory and H. Helson’s (1964) adaptation level theory are plausible theories of relative judgment of magnitude information, which could provide an account of these context effects.
Evolving landscapes for population games
, 1997
"... We consider population games where the possible actions of each player are labeled by a real number that ranges over a finite interval. The adjustment dynamics of such games can be visualized as motion over a “landscape ” the surface defined by a payoff or fitness function. A leading example is gra ..."
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Cited by 10 (4 self)
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We consider population games where the possible actions of each player are labeled by a real number that ranges over a finite interval. The adjustment dynamics of such games can be visualized as motion over a “landscape ” the surface defined by a payoff or fitness function. A leading example is gradient dynamics, in which the speed with which a player changes action is proportional to the gradient (or slope) of the landscape at his current action. We show that gradient dynamics arise from individual optimizations, given the costs of changing actions. We also show that the time behavior of the action distribution in gradient dynamics is described by a class of nonlinear integropartial differential equations with deviating spatial arguments. We solve these equations analytically for some interesting choices of payoff functions. Cases are exhibited in which the distribution of actions develops compression and rarefaction shock waves. The results of numerical simulations are presented. We characterize the limiting probability distributions of classes of population games, and find sufficient conditions for convergence to pure Nash equilibrium and for convergence to distributions with full support. Applications are suggested in economics and population biology. 1
Stability and Explanatory Significance of Some Simple Evolutionary Models” Philosophy of Science 67
, 1999
"... dynamics. First there are questions of dynamical stability of the equilibrium that are internal to the dynamical system in question. Is the equilibrium locally stable, so that states near to it stay near to it, or better, asymptotically stable, so that states near to it are carried to it by the dyna ..."
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Cited by 7 (5 self)
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dynamics. First there are questions of dynamical stability of the equilibrium that are internal to the dynamical system in question. Is the equilibrium locally stable, so that states near to it stay near to it, or better, asymptotically stable, so that states near to it are carried to it by the dynamics? If not, we should not expect to see this equilibrium. But
Evolution of Conventional Meaning and Conversational Principles
"... In this paper we study language use and language organisation by making use of Lewisean signalling games. Standard game theoretical approaches are contrasted with evolutionary ones to analyze conventional meaning and conversational interpretation strategies. It is argued that analyzing successful ..."
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Cited by 4 (0 self)
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In this paper we study language use and language organisation by making use of Lewisean signalling games. Standard game theoretical approaches are contrasted with evolutionary ones to analyze conventional meaning and conversational interpretation strategies. It is argued that analyzing successful communication in terms of standard game theory requires agents to be very rational and fully informed. The main goal of the paper is to show that in terms of evolutionary game theory we can motivate the emergence and selfsustaining force of (i) conventional meaning and (ii) some conversational interpretation strategies in terms of weaker and, perhaps, more plausible assumptions.
Evolutionary game theory: ESS, convergence stability
, 2009
"... Question: How are the three main stability concepts from evolutionary game theory – evolutionarily stable strategy (ESS), convergence stability, and neighbourhood invader strategy (NIS) – related to each other? Do they form a basis for the many other definitions proposed in the literature? Mathemat ..."
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Question: How are the three main stability concepts from evolutionary game theory – evolutionarily stable strategy (ESS), convergence stability, and neighbourhood invader strategy (NIS) – related to each other? Do they form a basis for the many other definitions proposed in the literature? Mathematical methods: Ecological and evolutionary dynamics of population sizes and heritable strategies respectively, and adaptive and NIS landscapes. Results: Only six of the eight combinations of ESS, convergence stability, and NIS are possible. An ESS that is NIS must also be convergence stable; and a nonESS, nonNIS cannot be convergence stable. A simple example shows how a single model can easily generate solutions with all six combinations of stability properties and explains in part the proliferation of jargon, terminology, and apparent complexity that has appeared in the literature. A tabulation of most of the evolutionary stability acronyms, definitions, and terminologies is provided for comparison. Key conclusions: The tabulated list of definitions related to evolutionary stability are variants or combinations of the three main stability concepts.