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Proof verification and hardness of approximation problems
 IN PROC. 33RD ANN. IEEE SYMP. ON FOUND. OF COMP. SCI
, 1992
"... We show that every language in NP has a probablistic verifier that checks membership proofs for it using logarithmic number of random bits and by examining a constant number of bits in the proof. If a string is in the language, then there exists a proof such that the verifier accepts with probabilit ..."
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Cited by 723 (45 self)
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We show that every language in NP has a probablistic verifier that checks membership proofs for it using logarithmic number of random bits and by examining a constant number of bits in the proof. If a string is in the language, then there exists a proof such that the verifier accepts with probability 1 (i.e., for every choice of its random string). For strings not in the language, the verifier rejects every provided “proof " with probability at least 1/2. Our result builds upon and improves a recent result of Arora and Safra [6] whose verifiers examine a nonconstant number of bits in the proof (though this number is a very slowly growing function of the input length). As a consequence we prove that no MAX SNPhard problem has a polynomial time approximation scheme, unless NP=P. The class MAX SNP was defined by Papadimitriou and Yannakakis [82] and hard problems for this class include vertex cover, maximum satisfiability, maximum cut, metric TSP, Steiner trees and shortest superstring. We also improve upon the clique hardness results of Feige, Goldwasser, Lovász, Safra and Szegedy [42], and Arora and Safra [6] and shows that there exists a positive ɛ such that approximating the maximum clique size in an Nvertex graph to within a factor of N ɛ is NPhard.
SmallBias Probability Spaces: Efficient Constructions and Applications
 SIAM J. Comput
, 1993
"... We show how to efficiently construct a small probability space on n binary random variables such that for every subset, its parity is either zero or one with "almost" equal probability. They are called fflbiased random variables. The number of random bits needed to generate the random var ..."
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Cited by 256 (14 self)
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We show how to efficiently construct a small probability space on n binary random variables such that for every subset, its parity is either zero or one with "almost" equal probability. They are called fflbiased random variables. The number of random bits needed to generate the random variables is O(log n + log 1 ffl ). Thus, if ffl is polynomially small, then the size of the sample space is also polynomial. Random variables that are fflbiased can be used to construct "almost" kwise independent random variables where ffl is a function of k. These probability spaces have various applications: 1. Derandomization of algorithms: many randomized algorithms that require only k wise independence of their random bits (where k is bounded by O(log n)), can be derandomized by using fflbiased random variables. 2. Reducing the number of random bits required by certain randomized algorithms, e.g., verification of matrix multiplication. 3. Exhaustive testing of combinatorial circui...
Randomness is Linear in Space
 Journal of Computer and System Sciences
, 1993
"... We show that any randomized algorithm that runs in space S and time T and uses poly(S) random bits can be simulated using only O(S) random bits in space S and time T poly(S). A deterministic simulation in space S follows. Of independent interest is our main technical tool: a procedure which extracts ..."
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Cited by 225 (18 self)
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We show that any randomized algorithm that runs in space S and time T and uses poly(S) random bits can be simulated using only O(S) random bits in space S and time T poly(S). A deterministic simulation in space S follows. Of independent interest is our main technical tool: a procedure which extracts randomness from a defective random source using a small additional number of truly random bits. 1
Pseudorandom generators for spacebounded computation
 Combinatorica
, 1992
"... Pseudorandom generators are constructed which convert O(SlogR) truly random bits to R bits that appear random to any algorithm that runs in SPACE(S). In particular, any randomized polynomial time algorithm that runs in space S can be simulated using only O(Slogn) random bits. An application of these ..."
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Cited by 191 (11 self)
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Pseudorandom generators are constructed which convert O(SlogR) truly random bits to R bits that appear random to any algorithm that runs in SPACE(S). In particular, any randomized polynomial time algorithm that runs in space S can be simulated using only O(Slogn) random bits. An application of these generators is an explicit construction of universal traversal sequences (for arbitrary graphs) of length n O(l~ The generators constructed are technically stronger than just appearing random to spacebounded machines, and have several other applications. In particular, applications are given for "deterministic amplification " (i.e. reducing the probability of error of randomized algorithms), as well as generalizations of it. 1.
How to recycle random bits
 In Proceedings of the 30th Annual IEEE Symposium on Foundations of Computer Science
, 1989
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Efficient probabilistically checkable proofs and applications to approximation
 In Proceedings of STOC93
, 1993
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Construction of asymptotically good, lowrate errorcorrecting codes through pseudorandom graphs
 IEEE Transactions on Information Theory
, 1992
"... A new technique, based on the pseudorandom properties of certain graphs, known as expanders, is used to obtain new simple explicit constructions of asymptotically good codes. In one of the constructions, the expanders are used to enhance Justesen codes by replicating, shuffling and then regrouping ..."
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Cited by 115 (22 self)
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A new technique, based on the pseudorandom properties of certain graphs, known as expanders, is used to obtain new simple explicit constructions of asymptotically good codes. In one of the constructions, the expanders are used to enhance Justesen codes by replicating, shuffling and then regrouping the code coordinates. For any fixed (small) rate, and for sufficiently large alphabet, the codes thus obtained lie above the Zyablov bound. Using these codes as outer codes in a concatenated scheme, a second asymptotic good construction is obtained which applies to small alphabets (say, GF (2)) as well. Although these concatenated codes lie below Zyablov bound, they are still superior to previouslyknown explicit constructions in the zerorate neighborhood.
Simulating BPP Using a General Weak Random Source
 ALGORITHMICA
, 1996
"... We show how to simulate BPP and approximation algorithms in polynomial time using the output from a ffisource. A ffisource is a weak random source that is asked only once for R bits, and must output an Rbit string according to some distribution that places probability no more than 2 \GammaffiR on ..."
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Cited by 109 (18 self)
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We show how to simulate BPP and approximation algorithms in polynomial time using the output from a ffisource. A ffisource is a weak random source that is asked only once for R bits, and must output an Rbit string according to some distribution that places probability no more than 2 \GammaffiR on any particular string. We also give an application to the unapproximability of Max Clique.
Extractors and Pseudorandom Generators
 Journal of the ACM
, 1999
"... We introduce a new approach to constructing extractors. Extractors are algorithms that transform a "weakly random" distribution into an almost uniform distribution. Explicit constructions of extractors have a variety of important applications, and tend to be very difficult to obtain. ..."
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Cited by 92 (5 self)
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We introduce a new approach to constructing extractors. Extractors are algorithms that transform a "weakly random" distribution into an almost uniform distribution. Explicit constructions of extractors have a variety of important applications, and tend to be very difficult to obtain.
Our Data, Ourselves: Privacy via Distributed Noise Generation
 In EUROCRYPT
, 2006
"... Abstract. In this work we provide efficient distributed protocols for generating shares of random noise, secure against malicious participants. The purpose of the noise generation is to create a distributed implementation of the privacypreserving statistical databases described in recent papers [14 ..."
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Cited by 91 (13 self)
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Abstract. In this work we provide efficient distributed protocols for generating shares of random noise, secure against malicious participants. The purpose of the noise generation is to create a distributed implementation of the privacypreserving statistical databases described in recent papers [14,4,13]. In these databases, privacy is obtained by perturbing the true answer to a database query by the addition of a small amount of Gaussian or exponentially distributed random noise. The computational power of evenasimple form of these databases, when the queryis just of the form È i f(di), that is, the sum over all rows i in the database of a function f applied to the data in row i, has been demonstrated in [4]. A distributed implementation eliminates the need for a trusted database administrator. The results for noise generation are of independent interest. The generation of Gaussian noise introduces a technique for distributing shares of many unbiased coins with fewer executions of verifiable secret sharing than would be needed using previous approaches (reduced by afactorofn). The generation of exponentially distributed noise uses two shallow circuits: one for generating many arbitrarily but identically biased coins at an amortized cost of two unbiased random bits apiece, independent of the bias, and the other to combine bits of appropriate biases to obtain an exponential distribution. 1