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The Emergent Computational Potential of Evolving Artificial Living Systems
, 2002
"... The computational potential of artificial living systems can be studied without knowing the algorithms that govern their behavior. Modeling single organisms by means of socalled cognitive transducers, we will estimate the computational power of AL systems by viewing them as conglomerates of such org ..."
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The computational potential of artificial living systems can be studied without knowing the algorithms that govern their behavior. Modeling single organisms by means of socalled cognitive transducers, we will estimate the computational power of AL systems by viewing them as conglomerates of such organisms. We describe a scenario in which an artificial living (AL) system is involved in a potentially infinite, unpredictable interaction with an active or passive environment, to which it can react by learning and adjusting its behaviour. By making use of sequences of cognitive transducers one can also model the evolution of AL systems caused by `architectural' changes. Among the examples are `communities of agents', i.e. by communities of mobile, interactive cognitive transducers.
Alan Turing and the Mathematical Objection
 Minds and Machines 13(1
, 2003
"... Abstract. This paper concerns Alan Turing’s ideas about machines, mathematical methods of proof, and intelligence. By the late 1930s, Kurt Gödel and other logicians, including Turing himself, had shown that no finite set of rules could be used to generate all true mathematical statements. Yet accord ..."
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Abstract. This paper concerns Alan Turing’s ideas about machines, mathematical methods of proof, and intelligence. By the late 1930s, Kurt Gödel and other logicians, including Turing himself, had shown that no finite set of rules could be used to generate all true mathematical statements. Yet according to Turing, there was no upper bound to the number of mathematical truths provable by intelligent human beings, for they could invent new rules and methods of proof. So, the output of a human mathematician, for Turing, was not a computable sequence (i.e., one that could be generated by a Turing machine). Since computers only contained a finite number of instructions (or programs), one might argue, they could not reproduce human intelligence. Turing called this the “mathematical objection ” to his view that machines can think. Logicomathematical reasons, stemming from his own work, helped to convince Turing that it should be possible to reproduce human intelligence, and eventually compete with it, by developing the appropriate kind of digital computer. He felt it should be possible to program a computer so that it could learn or discover new rules, overcoming the limitations imposed by the incompleteness and undecidability results in the same way that human mathematicians presumably do. Key words: artificial intelligence, ChurchTuring thesis, computability, effective procedure, incompleteness, machine, mathematical objection, ordinal logics, Turing, undecidability The ‘skin of an onion ’ analogy is also helpful. In considering the functions of the mind or the brain we find certain operations which we can express in purely mechanical terms. This we say does not correspond to the real mind: it is a sort of skin which we must strip off if we are to find the real mind. But then in what remains, we find a further skin to be stripped off, and so on. Proceeding in this way, do we ever come to the ‘real ’ mind, or do we eventually come to the skin which has nothing in it? In the latter case, the whole mind is mechanical (Turing, 1950, p. 454–455). 1.
The Development of Models of Computation with Advances in Technology and Natural Sciences
"... Abstract. The development of models of computation induces the development of technology and natural sciences and vice versa. Current state of the art of technology and sciences, especially networks of concurrent processes such as Internet or biological and sociological systems, calls for new comput ..."
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Abstract. The development of models of computation induces the development of technology and natural sciences and vice versa. Current state of the art of technology and sciences, especially networks of concurrent processes such as Internet or biological and sociological systems, calls for new computational models. It is necessary to extend classical Turing machine model towards physical / natural computation. Important aspects are openness and interactivity of computational systems, as well as concurrency of computational processes. The development proceeds in two directions – as a search for new mathematical structures beyond algorithms as well as a search for different modes of physical computation that are not equivalent to actions of human executing an algorithm, but appear in physical systems in which concurrent interactive information processing takes place. The article presents the framework of infocomputationalism as applied on computing nature, where nature is an informational structure and its dynamics (information processing) is understood as computation. In natural computing, new developments in both understanding of natural systems and in their computational modelling are needed, and those two converge and enhance each other. 1 INTRODUCTION: WHAT IS COMPUTING
Alan Turing’s Legacy: InfoComputational Philosophy of Nature
"... Abstract. Alan Turing’s pioneering work on computability, and his ideas on morphological computing support Andrew Hodges view of Turing as a natural philosopher. Turings natural philosophy differs importantly from Galileos view that the book of nature is written in the language of mathematics (The A ..."
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Abstract. Alan Turing’s pioneering work on computability, and his ideas on morphological computing support Andrew Hodges view of Turing as a natural philosopher. Turings natural philosophy differs importantly from Galileos view that the book of nature is written in the language of mathematics (The Assayer, 1623). Computing is more than a language of nature as computation produces real time behaviors. This article presents the framework of Natural Infocomputationalism as a contemporary natural philosophy that builds on the legacy of Turings computationalism. Infocomputationalism is a synthesis of Informational Structural Realism (the view that nature is a web of informational structures) and Natural Computationalism (the view that nature physically computes its own time development). It presents a framework for the development of a unified approach to nature, with common interpretation of inanimate nature as well as living organisms and their social networks. Computing is information processing that drives all the changes on different levels of organization of information and can be understood as morphological computing on data sets pertinent to informational
Editorial: Alan Turing and Artificial Intelligence
 Journal of Logic, Language & Information
, 2000
"... famous assertion. He predicted that by the year 2000 it would be feasible to write a program that would, after five minutes of questioning, have at least a 30% chance of fooling an average conversational partner into believing it was a human being (Turing, 1950). 2 1 See http://www.turing.org.uk/ ..."
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famous assertion. He predicted that by the year 2000 it would be feasible to write a program that would, after five minutes of questioning, have at least a 30% chance of fooling an average conversational partner into believing it was a human being (Turing, 1950). 2 1 See http://www.turing.org.uk/turing/biblio.html. 2 As Charniak and McDermott (1985, p. 10) remark "Actually, the [Mind ] paper makes it sound as if Turing had in mind the computer pretending to be a woman in the man/woman game, but the point is not completely clear, and most have assumed that he intended the test to be a person/computer one, and not woman/computer." See (Saygin et al., 1999) for an attempt at clarification. 2 V. AKMAN AND P. BLACKBURN Figure 1. Alan Turing in 1946. This is detail from a larger photograph which shows Turing with other members of an athletic club in Surrey. A serious runner, Turing achieved worldcla
1.1 PERCEPTUAL COMPUTING
"... Lotfi Zadeh (1996, 1999, 2008), the father of fuzzy logic, coined the phrase “computing with words. ” Different acronyms have been used for computing with words, such as CW and CWW. In this book, the latter is chosen because its three letters coincide ..."
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Lotfi Zadeh (1996, 1999, 2008), the father of fuzzy logic, coined the phrase “computing with words. ” Different acronyms have been used for computing with words, such as CW and CWW. In this book, the latter is chosen because its three letters coincide
The Military Use of Alan Turing
"... Alan Turing (19121954), British mathematician, was critical in the Anglo; American decipherment of German communications in the Second World War. This experience enabled him to formulate an original plan for the digital computer in 1945, based on his own 1936 concept of the universal machine. He w ..."
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Alan Turing (19121954), British mathematician, was critical in the Anglo; American decipherment of German communications in the Second World War. This experience enabled him to formulate an original plan for the digital computer in 1945, based on his own 1936 concept of the universal machine. He went on to found the program of Artificial Intelligence research. This article discusses the relationship between these developments, and more general questions of mathematics and war illustrated by Alan Turing’s life and work.
This is a draft of the article to be published in Springer book. The final publication will be available at www.springerlink.com
"... Abstract. Stephen Wolfram’s work, and especially his New Kind of Science, presents as much a new science as a new natural philosophy ‐ natural computationalism. In the same way as Andrew Hodges, based on Alan Turing’s pioneering work on computability and his ideas on morphological computing and arti ..."
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Abstract. Stephen Wolfram’s work, and especially his New Kind of Science, presents as much a new science as a new natural philosophy ‐ natural computationalism. In the same way as Andrew Hodges, based on Alan Turing’s pioneering work on computability and his ideas on morphological computing and artificial intelligence, argues that Turing is best viewed as a natural philosopher we can also assert that Wolfram’s work constitutes natural philosophy. It is evident through natural and formal computational phenomena studied in different media, from the book with related materials to programs and demonstrations and computational knowledge engine. Wolfram’s theoretical studies and practical computational constructs including Mathematica and Wolfram Alpha reveal a research program reminiscent of Leibniz’ Mathesis universalis, the project of a universal science supported by a logical calculation framework. Wolfram’s new kind of science may be seen in the sense of Newton’s Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica being both natural philosophy and science, not only because of the new methodology of experimental computer science and simulation, or because of particular contributions addressing variety of phenomena, but in the first place as a new unified scientific framework for all of knowledge. It is not only about explaining special patterns seen in
Symposium on Natural/Unconventional Computing at AISB/IACAP (British Society
"... The articles in the volume Computing Nature present a selection of works from the ..."
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The articles in the volume Computing Nature present a selection of works from the