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23
StepIndexed Syntactic Logical Relations for Recursive and Quantified Types
 of Lecture Notes in Computer Science
, 2006
"... We present a sound and complete proof technique, based on syntactic logical relations, for showing contextual equivalence of expressions in a #calculus with recursive types and impredicative universal and existential types. Our development builds on the stepindexed PER model of recursive types ..."
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Cited by 72 (10 self)
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We present a sound and complete proof technique, based on syntactic logical relations, for showing contextual equivalence of expressions in a #calculus with recursive types and impredicative universal and existential types. Our development builds on the stepindexed PER model of recursive types presented by Appel and McAllester. We have discovered that a direct proof of transitivity of that model does not go through, leaving the "PER" status of the model in question. We show how to extend the AppelMcAllester model to obtain a logical relation that we can prove is transitive, as well as sound and complete with respect to contextual equivalence. We then augment this model to support relational reasoning in the presence of quantified types.
Semantics of Types for Mutable State
, 2004
"... Proofcarrying code (PCC) is a framework for mechanically verifying the safety of machine language programs. A program that is successfully verified by a PCC system is guaranteed to be safe to execute, but this safety guarantee is contingent upon the correctness of various trusted components. For in ..."
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Cited by 55 (5 self)
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Proofcarrying code (PCC) is a framework for mechanically verifying the safety of machine language programs. A program that is successfully verified by a PCC system is guaranteed to be safe to execute, but this safety guarantee is contingent upon the correctness of various trusted components. For instance, in traditional PCC systems the trusted computing base includes a large set of lowlevel typing rules. Foundational PCC systems seek to minimize the size of the trusted computing base. In particular, they eliminate the need to trust complex, lowlevel type systems by providing machinecheckable proofs of type soundness for real machine languages. In this thesis, I demonstrate the use of logical relations for proving the soundness of type systems for mutable state. Specifically, I focus on type systems that ensure the safe allocation, update, and reuse of memory. For each type in the language, I define logical relations that explain the meaning of the type in terms of the operational semantics of the language. Using this model of types, I prove each typing rule as a lemma. The major contribution is a model of System F with general references — that is, mutable cells that can hold values of any closed type including other references, functions, recursive types, and impredicative quantified types. The model is based on ideas from both possible worlds and the indexed model of Appel and McAllester. I show how the model of mutable references is encoded in higherorder logic. I also show how to construct an indexed possibleworlds model for a von Neumann machine. The latter is used in the Princeton Foundational PCC system to prove type safety for a fullfledged lowlevel typed assembly language. Finally, I present a semantic model for a region calculus that supports typeinvariant references as well as memory reuse. iii
Runtime Principals in Informationflow Type Systems
 In IEEE Symposium on Security and Privacy
, 2004
"... for enforcing strong endtoend confidentiality and integrity policies. Such policies, however, are usually specified in term of static informationdata is labeled high or low security at compile time. In practice, the confidentiality of data may depend on information available only while the sys ..."
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Cited by 54 (10 self)
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for enforcing strong endtoend confidentiality and integrity policies. Such policies, however, are usually specified in term of static informationdata is labeled high or low security at compile time. In practice, the confidentiality of data may depend on information available only while the system is running This paper studies language support for runtime principals, a mechanism for specifying informationflow security policies that depend on which principals interact with the system. We establish the basic property of noninterference for programs written in such language, and use runtime principals for specifying runtime authority in downgrading mechanisms such as declassification.
Dynamic Opacity for Abstract Types
"... Existential types are the standard formalisation of abstract types. While this formulation is sufficient in entirely statically typed languages, it proves to be too weak for languages enriched with forms of dynamic typing: in the presence of operations performing type analysis, the abstraction barri ..."
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Cited by 44 (11 self)
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Existential types are the standard formalisation of abstract types. While this formulation is sufficient in entirely statically typed languages, it proves to be too weak for languages enriched with forms of dynamic typing: in the presence of operations performing type analysis, the abstraction barrier erected by the static typing rules for existential types is no longer impassable, because parametricity is violated. We present a lightweight calculus for polymorphic languages with abstract types that addresses this shortcoming. It features a variation of existential types that retains most of the simplicity of standard existentials. It relies on modified scoping rules and explicit coercions between the quantified variable and its witness type.
A bisimulation for dynamic sealing
 In Proceedings 31st Annual ACM Symposium on Principles of Programming Languages
, 2004
"... We define λseal, an untyped callbyvalue λcalculus with primitives for protecting abstract data by sealing, and develop a bisimulation proof method that is sound and complete with respect to contextual equivalence. This provides a formal basis for reasoning about data abstraction in open, dynamic ..."
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Cited by 42 (6 self)
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We define λseal, an untyped callbyvalue λcalculus with primitives for protecting abstract data by sealing, and develop a bisimulation proof method that is sound and complete with respect to contextual equivalence. This provides a formal basis for reasoning about data abstraction in open, dynamic settings where static techniques such as type abstraction and logical relations are not applicable.
Logical Relations for Encryption
, 2002
"... The theory of relational parametricity and its logical relations proof technique are powerful tools for reasoning about information hiding in the polymorphic calculus. We investigate the application of these tools in the security domain by defining a cryptographic calculusan extension of the ..."
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Cited by 38 (2 self)
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The theory of relational parametricity and its logical relations proof technique are powerful tools for reasoning about information hiding in the polymorphic calculus. We investigate the application of these tools in the security domain by defining a cryptographic calculusan extension of the standard simply typed calculus with primitives for encryption, decryption, and key generation and introducing syntactic logical relations (in the style of Pitts and BirkedalHarper) for this calculus that can be used to prove behavioral equivalences between programs that use encryption. We illustrate
Operational Properties of Lily, a Polymorphic Linear Lambda Calculus with Recursion
"... Plotkin has advocated the combination of linear lambda calculus, polymorphism and fixed point recursion as an expressive semantic metalanguage. We study its expressive power from an operational point of view. We show that the naturally callbyvalue operators of linear lambda calculus can be given a ..."
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Cited by 35 (1 self)
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Plotkin has advocated the combination of linear lambda calculus, polymorphism and fixed point recursion as an expressive semantic metalanguage. We study its expressive power from an operational point of view. We show that the naturally callbyvalue operators of linear lambda calculus can be given a callbyname semantics without affecting termination at exponential types and hence without affecting ground contextual equivalence. This result is used to prove properties of a logical relation that provides a new extensional characterisation of ground contextual equivalence and relational parametricity properties of polymorphic types.
Operational Semantics and Program Equivalence
 INRIA Sophia Antipolis, 2000. Lectures at the International Summer School On Applied Semantics, APPSEM 2000, Caminha, Minho
, 2000
"... This tutorial paper discusses a particular style of operational semantics that enables one to give a `syntaxdirected' inductive definition of termination which is very useful for reasoning about operational equivalence of programs. We restrict attention to contextual equivalence of expressions ..."
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Cited by 35 (4 self)
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This tutorial paper discusses a particular style of operational semantics that enables one to give a `syntaxdirected' inductive definition of termination which is very useful for reasoning about operational equivalence of programs. We restrict attention to contextual equivalence of expressions in the ML family of programming languages, concentrating on functions involving local state. A brief tour of structural operational semantics culminates in a structural definition of termination via an abstract machine using `frame stacks'. Applications of this to reasoning about contextual equivalence are given.
Sequentiality and the πCalculus
, 2001
"... We present a simple type discipline for the πcalculus which precisely captures the notion of sequential functional computation as a specific class of name passing interactive behaviour. The typed calculus allows direct interpretation of both callbyname and callbyvalue sequential functions. T ..."
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Cited by 29 (15 self)
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We present a simple type discipline for the πcalculus which precisely captures the notion of sequential functional computation as a specific class of name passing interactive behaviour. The typed calculus allows direct interpretation of both callbyname and callbyvalue sequential functions. The precision of the representation is demonstrated by way of a fully abstract encoding of PCF.
A Compositional Logic for Polymorphic HigherOrder Functions
 PPDP'04
, 2004
"... This paper introduces a compositional program logic for higherorder polymorphic functions and standard data types. The logic enables us to reason about observable properties of polymorphic programs starting from those of their constituents. Just as types attached to programs offer information on the ..."
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Cited by 26 (11 self)
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This paper introduces a compositional program logic for higherorder polymorphic functions and standard data types. The logic enables us to reason about observable properties of polymorphic programs starting from those of their constituents. Just as types attached to programs offer information on their composability so as to guarantee basic safety of composite programs, formulae of the proposed logic attached to programs offer information on their composability so as to guarantee finegrained behavioural properties of polymorphic programs. The central feature of the logic is a systematic usage of names and operations on them, whose origin is in the logics for typed πcalculi. The paper introduces the program logic and its proof rules and illustrates their usage by nontrivial reasoning examples, taking a prototypical callbyvalue functional language with impredicative polymorphism and recursive types as a target language.