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Enforcing HighLevel Protocols in LowLevel Software
, 2001
"... The reliability of infrastructure software, such as operating systems and web servers, is often hampered by the mismanagement of resources, such as memory and network connections. The Vault programming language allows a programmer to describe resource management protocols that the compiler can stati ..."
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Cited by 363 (9 self)
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The reliability of infrastructure software, such as operating systems and web servers, is often hampered by the mismanagement of resources, such as memory and network connections. The Vault programming language allows a programmer to describe resource management protocols that the compiler can statically enforce. Such a protocol can specify that operations must be performed in a certain order and that certain operations must be performed before accessing a given data object. Furthermore, Vault enforces statically that resources cannot be leaked. We validate the utility of our approach by enforcing protocols present in the interface between the Windows 2000 kernel and its device drivers.
Alias Types
 In European Symposium on Programming
, 1999
"... Linear type systems allow destructive operations such as object deallocation and imperative updates of functional data structures. These operations and others, such as the ability to reuse memory at di#erent types, are essential in lowlevel typed languages. However, traditional linear type syste ..."
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Cited by 171 (23 self)
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Linear type systems allow destructive operations such as object deallocation and imperative updates of functional data structures. These operations and others, such as the ability to reuse memory at di#erent types, are essential in lowlevel typed languages. However, traditional linear type systems are too restrictive for use in lowlevel code where it is necessary to exploit pointer aliasing. We present a new typed language that allows functions to specify the shape of the store that they expect and to track the flow of pointers through a computation. Our type system is expressive enough to represent pointer aliasing and yet safely permit destructive operations.
Alias Types for Recursive Data Structures
, 2000
"... Linear type systems permit programmers to deallocate or explicitly recycle memory, but they are severly restricted by the fact that they admit no aliasing. This paper describes a pseudolinear type system that allows a degree of aliasing and memory reuse as well as the ability to define complex recu ..."
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Cited by 137 (14 self)
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Linear type systems permit programmers to deallocate or explicitly recycle memory, but they are severly restricted by the fact that they admit no aliasing. This paper describes a pseudolinear type system that allows a degree of aliasing and memory reuse as well as the ability to define complex recursive data structures. Our type system can encode conventional linear data structures such as linear lists and trees as well as more sophisticated data structures including cyclic and doublylinked lists and trees. In the latter cases, our type system is expressive enough to represent pointer aliasing and yet safely permit destructive operations such as object deallocation. We demonstrate the flexibility of our type system by encoding two common compiler optimizations: destinationpassing style and DeutschSchorrWaite or "linkreversal" traversal algorithms.
Compiling with Types
, 1995
"... Compilers for monomorphic languages, such as C and Pascal, take advantage of types to determine data representations, alignment, calling conventions, and register selection. However, these languages lack important features including polymorphism, abstract datatypes, and garbage collection. In contr ..."
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Cited by 103 (14 self)
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Compilers for monomorphic languages, such as C and Pascal, take advantage of types to determine data representations, alignment, calling conventions, and register selection. However, these languages lack important features including polymorphism, abstract datatypes, and garbage collection. In contrast, modern programming languages such as Standard ML (SML), provide all of these features, but existing implementations fail to take full advantage of types. The result is that performance of SML code is quite bad when compared to C. In this thesis, I provide a general framework, called typedirected compilation, that allows compiler writers to take advantage of types at all stages in compilation. In the framework, types are used not only to determine efficient representations and calling conventions, but also to prove the correctness of the compiler. A key property of typedirected compilation is that all but the lowest levels of the compiler use typed intermediate languages. An advantage of this approach is that it provides a means for automatically checking the integrity of the resulting code. An important
How to Declare an Imperative
, 1995
"... How can we integrate interaction into a purely declarative language? This tutorial describes a solution to this problem based on a monad. The solution has been implemented in the functional language Haskell and the declarative language Escher. Comparisons are given to other approaches to interaction ..."
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Cited by 98 (3 self)
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How can we integrate interaction into a purely declarative language? This tutorial describes a solution to this problem based on a monad. The solution has been implemented in the functional language Haskell and the declarative language Escher. Comparisons are given to other approaches to interaction based on synchronous streams, continuations, linear logic, and side effects.
A Mixed Linear and NonLinear Logic: Proofs, Terms and Models (Preliminary Report)
, 1994
"... Intuitionistic linear logic regains the expressive power of intuitionistic logic through the ! (`of course') modality. Benton, Bierman, Hyland and de Paiva have given a term assignment system for ILL and an associated notion of categorical model in which the ! modality is modelled by a comonad ..."
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Cited by 94 (3 self)
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Intuitionistic linear logic regains the expressive power of intuitionistic logic through the ! (`of course') modality. Benton, Bierman, Hyland and de Paiva have given a term assignment system for ILL and an associated notion of categorical model in which the ! modality is modelled by a comonad satisfying certain extra conditions. Ordinary intuitionistic logic is then modelled in a cartesian closed category which arises as a full subcategory of the category of coalgebras for the comonad. This paper attempts to explain the connection between ILL and IL more directly and symmetrically by giving a logic, term calculus and categorical model for a system in which the linear and nonlinear worlds exist on an equal footing, with operations allowing one to pass in both directions. We start from the categorical model of ILL given by Benton, Bierman, Hyland and de Paiva and show that this is equivalent to having a symmetric monoidal adjunction between a symmetric monoidal closed category and a cartesian closed category. We then derive both a sequent calculus and a natural deduction presentation of the logic corresponding to the new notion of model.
Abstract Models of Memory Management
, 1995
"... Most specifications of garbage collectors concentrate on the lowlevel algorithmic details of how to find and preserve accessible objects. Often, they focus on bitlevel manipulations such as "scanning stack frames," "marking objects," "tagging data," etc. While these d ..."
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Cited by 91 (17 self)
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Most specifications of garbage collectors concentrate on the lowlevel algorithmic details of how to find and preserve accessible objects. Often, they focus on bitlevel manipulations such as "scanning stack frames," "marking objects," "tagging data," etc. While these details are important in some contexts, they often obscure the more fundamental aspects of memory management: what objects are garbage and why? We develop a series of calculi that are just lowlevel enough that we can express allocation and garbage collection, yet are sufficiently abstract that we may formally prove the correctness of various memory management strategies. By making the heap of a program syntactically apparent, we can specify memory actions as rewriting rules that allocate values on the heap and automatically dereference pointers to such objects when needed. This formulation permits the specification of garbage collection as a relation that removes portions of the heap without affecting the outcome of the evaluation. Our highlevel approach allows us to specify in a compact manner a wide variety of memory management techniques, including standard tracebased garbage collection (i.e., the family of copying and mark/sweep collection algorithms), generational collection, and typebased, tagfree collection. Furthermore, since the definition of garbage is based on the semantics of the underlying language instead of the conservative approximation of inaccessibility, we are able to specify and prove the idea that type inference can be used to collect some objects that are accessible but never used.
Once Upon a Type
 In Functional Programming Languages and Computer Architecture
, 1995
"... A number of useful optimisations are enabled if we can determine when a value is accessed at most once. We extend the HindleyMilner type system with uses, yielding a typeinference based program analysis which determines when values are accessed at most once. Our analysis can handle higherorder fun ..."
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Cited by 82 (2 self)
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A number of useful optimisations are enabled if we can determine when a value is accessed at most once. We extend the HindleyMilner type system with uses, yielding a typeinference based program analysis which determines when values are accessed at most once. Our analysis can handle higherorder functions and data structures, and admits principal types for terms. Unlike previous analyses, we prove our analysis sound with respect to callbyneed reduction. Callbyname reduction does not provide an accurate model of how often a value is used during lazy evaluation, since it duplicates work which would actually be shared in a real implementation. Our type system can easily be modified to analyse usage in a callbyvalue language. 1 Introduction This paper describes a method for determining when a value is used at most once. Our method is based on a simple modification of the HindleyMilner type system. Each type is labelled to indicate whether the corresponding value is used at most onc...
QuasiLinear Types
, 1999
"... Linear types (types of values that can be used just once) have been drawing a great deal of attention because they are useful for memory management, inplace update of data structures, etc.: an obvious advantage is that a value of a linear type can be immediately deallocated after being used. Howeve ..."
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Cited by 59 (5 self)
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Linear types (types of values that can be used just once) have been drawing a great deal of attention because they are useful for memory management, inplace update of data structures, etc.: an obvious advantage is that a value of a linear type can be immediately deallocated after being used. However, the linear types have not been applied so widely in practice, probably because linear values (values of linear types) in the traditional sense do not so often appear in actual programs. In order to increase the applicability of linear types, we relax the condition of linearity by extending the types with information on an evaluation order and simple dataflow information. The extended type system, called a quasilinear type system, is formalized and its correctness is proved. We have implemented a prototype type inference system for the coreML that can automatically find out which value is linear in the relaxed sense. Promising results were obtained from preliminary experiments with the p...
A lambda calculus for quantum computation
 SIAM Journal of Computing
"... The classical lambda calculus may be regarded both as a programming language and as a formal algebraic system for reasoning about computation. It provides a computational model equivalent to the Turing machine, and continues to be of enormous benefit in the classical theory of computation. We propos ..."
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Cited by 49 (1 self)
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The classical lambda calculus may be regarded both as a programming language and as a formal algebraic system for reasoning about computation. It provides a computational model equivalent to the Turing machine, and continues to be of enormous benefit in the classical theory of computation. We propose that quantum computation, like its classical counterpart, may benefit from a version of the lambda calculus suitable for expressing and reasoning about quantum algorithms. In this paper we develop a quantum lambda calculus as an alternative model of quantum computation, which combines some of the benefits of both the quantum Turing machine and the quantum circuit models. The calculus turns out to be closely related to the linear lambda calculi used in the study of Linear Logic. We set up a computational model and an equational proof system for this calculus, and we argue that it is equivalent to the quantum Turing machine.