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Fast Folding and Comparison of RNA Secondary Structures (The Vienna RNA Package)
"... Computer codes for computation and comparison of RNA secondary structures, the Vienna RNA package, are presented, that are based on dynamic programming algorithms and aim at predictions of structures with minimum free energies as well as at computations of the equilibrium partition functions and bas ..."
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Cited by 469 (89 self)
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Computer codes for computation and comparison of RNA secondary structures, the Vienna RNA package, are presented, that are based on dynamic programming algorithms and aim at predictions of structures with minimum free energies as well as at computations of the equilibrium partition functions and base pairing probabilities. An efficient heuristic for the inverse folding problem of RNA is introduced. In addition we present compact and efficient programs for the comparison of RNA secondary structures based on tree editing and alignment. All computer codes are written in ANSI C. They include implementations of modified algorithms on parallel computers with distributed memory. Performance analysis carried out on an Intel Hypercube shows that parallel computing becomes gradually more and more efficient the longer the sequences are.
Landscapes and Their Correlation Functions
, 1996
"... Fitness landscapes are an important concept in molecular evolution. Many important examples of landscapes in physics and combinatorial optimation, which are widely used as model landscapes in simulations of molecular evolution and adaptation, are "elementary", i.e., they are (up to an additive const ..."
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Cited by 89 (15 self)
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Fitness landscapes are an important concept in molecular evolution. Many important examples of landscapes in physics and combinatorial optimation, which are widely used as model landscapes in simulations of molecular evolution and adaptation, are "elementary", i.e., they are (up to an additive constant) eigenfuctions of a graph Laplacian. It is shown that elementary landscapes are characterized by their correlation functions. The correlation functions are in turn uniquely determined by the geometry of the underlying configuration space and the nearest neighbor correlation of the elementary landscape. Two types of correlation functions are investigated here: the correlation of a time series sampled along a random walk on the landscape and the correlation function with respect to a partition of the set of all vertex pairs.
Generic Properties of Combinatory Maps  Neutral Networks of RNA Secondary Structures
, 1995
"... Random graph theory is used to model relationships between sequences and secondary structures of RNA molecules. Sequences folding into identical structures form neutral networks which percolate sequence space if the fraction of neutral nearest neighbors exceeds a threshold value. The networks of any ..."
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Cited by 79 (36 self)
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Random graph theory is used to model relationships between sequences and secondary structures of RNA molecules. Sequences folding into identical structures form neutral networks which percolate sequence space if the fraction of neutral nearest neighbors exceeds a threshold value. The networks of any two different structures almost touch each other, and sequences folding into almost all "common" structures can be found in a small ball of an arbitrary location in sequence space. The results from random graph theory are compared with data obtained by folding large samples of RNA sequences. Differences are explained in terms of RNA molecular structures. 1.
Analysis of RNA Sequence Structure Maps by Exhaustive Enumeration
, 1996
"... Global relations between RNA sequences and secondary structues are understood as mappings from sequence space into shape space. These mappings are investigated by exhaustive folding of all GC and AU sequences with chain lengths up to 30. The technique od tries is used for economic data storage and f ..."
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Cited by 72 (34 self)
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Global relations between RNA sequences and secondary structues are understood as mappings from sequence space into shape space. These mappings are investigated by exhaustive folding of all GC and AU sequences with chain lengths up to 30. The technique od tries is used for economic data storage and fast retrieval of information. The computed structural data are evaluated through exhaustive enumeration and used as an exact reference for testing analytical results derived from mathematical models and sampling based of statistical methods. Several new concepts of RNA sequence to secondary structure mappings are investigated, among them the structure of neutral networks (being sets of sequences folding into the same structure), percolation of sequence space by neutral networks, and the principle of shape space covering . The data of exhaustive enumeration are compared to the analytical results of a random graph model that reveals the generic properties of sequence to structure mappings based on some base pairing logic. The differences between the numerical and the analytical results are interpreted in terms of specific biophysical properties of RNA molecules.
Shaping Space: The Possible and the Attainable in RNA GenotypePhenotype Mapping
 J. THEOR. BIOL
, 1998
"... Understanding which phenotypes are accessible from which genotypes is fundamental for understanding the evolutionary process. This notion of accessibility can be used to define a relation of nearness among phenotypes, independently of their similarity. Because of neutrality, phenotypes denote equiva ..."
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Cited by 57 (13 self)
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Understanding which phenotypes are accessible from which genotypes is fundamental for understanding the evolutionary process. This notion of accessibility can be used to define a relation of nearness among phenotypes, independently of their similarity. Because of neutrality, phenotypes denote equivalence classes of genotypes. The definition of neighborhood relations among phenotypes relies, therefore, on the statistics of neighborhood relations among equivalence classes of genotypes in genotype space. The folding of RNA sequences (genotypes) into secondary structures (phenotypes) is an ideal case to implement these concepts. We study the extent to which the folding of RNA sequences induces a "statistical topology" on the set of minimum free energy secondary structures. The resulting nearness relation suggests a notion of "continuous" structure transformation. We can, then, rationalize major transitions in evolutionary trajectories at the level of RNA structures by identifying those tra...
Landscapes And Molecular Evolution
, 1996
"... that allows to choose the direction for the next step at random from all directions along which fitness does not decrease. Stationary states of populations correspond to local optima of the fitness landscape. Evolution is seen as a series of transitions between optima with increasing fitness values. ..."
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Cited by 41 (5 self)
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that allows to choose the direction for the next step at random from all directions along which fitness does not decrease. Stationary states of populations correspond to local optima of the fitness landscape. Evolution is seen as a series of transitions between optima with increasing fitness values. Wright's metaphor saw a recent revival when sufficiently simple models of fitness landscapes became available [1, 41]. These models are based on spin glass theory [63, 66] or closely related to it like Kauffman's Nk model [42]. Evolution of RNA molecules has been studied by more realistic models that deal explicitly with molecular structures obtained from folding RNA sequences [23, 24]. Fitness values serving as input parameters for evolutionary dynamics were derived through evaluation of the structures. The complexity of RNA fitness landscapes originates from conflicting consequences of structural changes that are reminiscent of "frustration" in the theory of spin glasses [2]. Fitness in t
Effect of neutral selection on the evolution of molecular species
 In Proc. R. Soc. London B
, 1998
"... We introduce a new model of evolution on a fitness landscape possessing a tunable degree of neutrality. The model allows us to study the general properties of molecular species undergoing neutral evolution. We find that a number of phenomena seen in RNA sequencestructure maps are present also in ou ..."
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Cited by 39 (1 self)
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We introduce a new model of evolution on a fitness landscape possessing a tunable degree of neutrality. The model allows us to study the general properties of molecular species undergoing neutral evolution. We find that a number of phenomena seen in RNA sequencestructure maps are present also in our general model. Examples are the occurrence of “common ” structures which occupy a fraction of the genotype space which tends to unity as the length of the genotype increases, and the formation of percolating neutral networks which cover the genotype space in such a way that a member of such a network can be found within a small radius of any point in the space. We also describe a number of new phenomena which appear to be general properties of neutrally evolving systems. In particular, we show that the maximum fitness attained during the adaptive walk of a population evolving on such a fitness landscape increases with increasing degree of neutrality, and is directly related to the fitness of the most fit percolating network. 1
Combinatorial Landscapes
 SIAM REVIEW
, 2002
"... Fitness landscapes have proven to be a valuable concept in evolutionary biology, combinatorial optimization, and the physics of disordered systems. A fitness landscape is a mapping from a configuration space into the real numbers. The configuration space is equipped with some notion of adjacency, ne ..."
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Cited by 33 (2 self)
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Fitness landscapes have proven to be a valuable concept in evolutionary biology, combinatorial optimization, and the physics of disordered systems. A fitness landscape is a mapping from a configuration space into the real numbers. The configuration space is equipped with some notion of adjacency, nearness, distance or accessibility. Landscape theory has emerged as an attempt to devise suitable mathematical structures for describing the "static" properties of landscapes as well as their influence on the dynamics of adaptation. In this review we focus on the connections of landscape theory with algebraic combinatorics and random graph theory, where exact results are available.
Statistics of RNA Melting Kinetics
, 1993
"... We present and study the behavior of a simple kinetic model for the melting of RNA secondary structures, given that those structures are known. The model is then used as a map that assigns structure dependent overall rate constants of melting (or refolding) to a sequence. This induces a "landscape" ..."
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Cited by 32 (13 self)
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We present and study the behavior of a simple kinetic model for the melting of RNA secondary structures, given that those structures are known. The model is then used as a map that assigns structure dependent overall rate constants of melting (or refolding) to a sequence. This induces a "landscape" of reaction rates, or activation energies, over the space of sequences with fixed length. We study the distribution and the correlation structure of these activation energies. 1. Introduction Single stranded RNA sequences fold into complex threedimensional structures. A tractable, yet reasonable, model for the map from sequences to structures considers a more coarse grained level of resolution known as the secondary structure. The secondary structure is a list of base pairs such that no pairings occur between bases located in different loop regions. Algorithms based on empirical energy data have been developed to compute the minimum free energy secondary structure of an RNA sequence (Zuker...
Landscapes  Complex Optimization Problems and Biopolymer Structures
 Computers Chem
, 1993
"... The evolution of RNA molecules in replication assays, viroids and RNA viruses can be viewed as an adaptation process on a 'fitness' landscape. The dynamics of evolution is hence tightly linked to the structure of the underlying landscape. Global features of landscapes can be described by statistical ..."
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Cited by 31 (16 self)
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The evolution of RNA molecules in replication assays, viroids and RNA viruses can be viewed as an adaptation process on a 'fitness' landscape. The dynamics of evolution is hence tightly linked to the structure of the underlying landscape. Global features of landscapes can be described by statistical measures like number of optima, lengths of walks, and correlation functions. The evolution of a quasispecies on such landscapes exhibits three dynamical regimes depending on the replication fidelity: Above the "localization threshold" the population is centered around a (local) optimum. Between localization and "dispersion threshold" the population is still centered around a consensus sequence, which, however, changes in time. For very large mutation rates the population spreads in sequence space like a gas. The critical mutation rates separating the three domains depend strongly on characteristics properties of the fitness landscapes. Statistical characteristics of RNA landscapes are acces...