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The NPcompleteness column: an ongoing guide
 Journal of Algorithms
, 1985
"... This is the nineteenth edition of a (usually) quarterly column that covers new developments in the theory of NPcompleteness. The presentation is modeled on that used by M. R. Garey and myself in our book ‘‘Computers and Intractability: A Guide to the Theory of NPCompleteness,’ ’ W. H. Freeman & Co ..."
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Cited by 188 (0 self)
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This is the nineteenth edition of a (usually) quarterly column that covers new developments in the theory of NPcompleteness. The presentation is modeled on that used by M. R. Garey and myself in our book ‘‘Computers and Intractability: A Guide to the Theory of NPCompleteness,’ ’ W. H. Freeman & Co., New York, 1979 (hereinafter referred to as ‘‘[G&J]’’; previous columns will be referred to by their dates). A background equivalent to that provided by [G&J] is assumed, and, when appropriate, crossreferences will be given to that book and the list of problems (NPcomplete and harder) presented there. Readers who have results they would like mentioned (NPhardness, PSPACEhardness, polynomialtimesolvability, etc.) or open problems they would like publicized, should
Spanning Trees and Spanners
, 1996
"... We survey results in geometric network design theory, including algorithms for constructing minimum spanning trees and lowdilation graphs. 1 Introduction This survey covers topics in geometric network design theory. The problem is easy to state: connect a collection of sites by a "good" network. ..."
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Cited by 143 (2 self)
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We survey results in geometric network design theory, including algorithms for constructing minimum spanning trees and lowdilation graphs. 1 Introduction This survey covers topics in geometric network design theory. The problem is easy to state: connect a collection of sites by a "good" network. For instance, one may wish to connect components of a VLSI circuit by networks of wires, in a way that uses little surface area on the chip, draws little power, and propagates signals quickly. Similar problems come up in other applications such as telecommunications, road network design, and medical imaging [1]. One network design problem, the Traveling Salesman problem, is sufficiently important to have whole books devoted to it [79]. Problems involving some form of geometric minimum or maximum spanning tree also arise in the solution of other geometric problems such as clustering [12], mesh generation [56], and robot motion planning [93]. One can vary the network design problem in many w...
Experimental Analysis of Heuristics for the STSP
 Local Search in Combinatorial Optimization
, 2001
"... In this and the following chapter, we consider what approaches one should take when one is confronted with a realworld application of the TSP. What algorithms should be used under which circumstances? We ..."
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Cited by 53 (1 self)
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In this and the following chapter, we consider what approaches one should take when one is confronted with a realworld application of the TSP. What algorithms should be used under which circumstances? We
Closing the Gap: NearOptimal Steiner Trees in Polynomial Time
 IEEE Trans. ComputerAided Design
, 1994
"... The minimum rectilinear Steiner tree (MRST) problem arises in global routing and wiring estimation, as well as in many other areas. The MRST problem is known to be NPhard, and the best performing MRST heuristic to date is the Iterated 1Steiner (I1S) method recently proposed by Kahng and Robins. In ..."
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Cited by 42 (13 self)
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The minimum rectilinear Steiner tree (MRST) problem arises in global routing and wiring estimation, as well as in many other areas. The MRST problem is known to be NPhard, and the best performing MRST heuristic to date is the Iterated 1Steiner (I1S) method recently proposed by Kahng and Robins. In this paper we develop a straightforward, efficient implementation of I1S, achieving a speedup factor of three orders of magnitude over previous implementations. We also give a parallel implementation that achieves nearlinear speedup on multiple processors. Several performanceimproving enhancements enable us to obtain Steiner trees with average cost within 0.25% of optimal, and our methods produce optimal solutions in up to 90% of the cases for typical nets. We generalize I1S and its variants to three dimensions, as well as to the case where all the pins lie on k parallel planes, which arises in, e.g., multilayer routing. Motivated by the goal of reducing the running times of our algorith...
Approximation Algorithms for DegreeConstrained MinimumCost NetworkDesign Problems
, 2001
"... We study networkdesign problems with two different design objectives: the total cost of the edges and nodes in the network and the maximum degree of any node in the network. A prototypical example is the degreeconstrained nodeweighted Steiner tree problem: We are given an undirected graph ..."
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Cited by 31 (2 self)
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We study networkdesign problems with two different design objectives: the total cost of the edges and nodes in the network and the maximum degree of any node in the network. A prototypical example is the degreeconstrained nodeweighted Steiner tree problem: We are given an undirected graph , with a nonnegative integral function that specifies an upper bound on the degree of each vertex in the Steiner tree to be constructed, nonnegative costs on the nodes, and a subset of nodes called terminals. The goal is to construct a Steiner containing all the terminals such that the degree of any node is at most the specified upper bound and the total cost of the nodes in is minimum. Our main result is a bicriteria approximation algorithm whose output is approximate in terms of both the degree and cost criteria  the degree of any node in the output Steiner tree is and the cost of the tree is times that of a minimumcost Steiner tree that obeys the degree bound for each node . Our result extends to the more general problem of constructing oneconnected networks such as generalized Steiner forests. We also consider the special case in which the edge costs obey the triangle inequality and present simple approximation algorithms with better performance guarantees.
Low Degree Spanning Trees Of Small Weight
, 1996
"... . Given n points in the plane, the degreeK spanning tree problem asks for a spanning tree of minimum weight in which the degree of each vertex is at most K. This paper addresses the problem of computing lowweight degreeK spanning trees for K ? 2. It is shown that for an arbitrary collection of n ..."
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Cited by 31 (2 self)
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. Given n points in the plane, the degreeK spanning tree problem asks for a spanning tree of minimum weight in which the degree of each vertex is at most K. This paper addresses the problem of computing lowweight degreeK spanning trees for K ? 2. It is shown that for an arbitrary collection of n points in the plane, there exists a spanning tree of degree three whose weight is at most 1.5 times the weight of a minimum spanning tree. It is shown that there exists a spanning tree of degree four whose weight is at most 1.25 times the weight of a minimum spanning tree. These results solve open problems posed by Papadimitriou and Vazirani. Moreover, if a minimum spanning tree is given as part of the input, the trees can be computed in O(n) time. The results are generalized to points in higher dimensions. It is shown that for any d 3, an arbitrary collection of points in ! d contains a spanning tree of degree three, whose weight is at most 5/3 times the weight of a minimum spanning tre...
An Efficient Evolutionary Algorithm for the DegreeConstrained Minimum Spanning Tree Problem
, 2000
"... The representation of candidate solutions and the variation operators are fundamental design choices in an evolutionary algorithm (EA). This paper proposes a novel representation technique and suitable variation operators for the degreeconstrained minimum spanning tree problem. For a weighted, undi ..."
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Cited by 24 (5 self)
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The representation of candidate solutions and the variation operators are fundamental design choices in an evolutionary algorithm (EA). This paper proposes a novel representation technique and suitable variation operators for the degreeconstrained minimum spanning tree problem. For a weighted, undirected graph G(V, E), this problem seeks to identify the shortest spanning tree whose node degrees do not exceed an upper bound d 2. Within the EA, a candidate spanning tree is simply represented by its set of edges. Special initialization, crossover, and mutation operators are used to generate new, always feasible candidate solutions. In contrast to previous spanning tree representations, the proposed approach provides substantially higher locality and is nevertheless computationally efficient; an offspring is always created in O(V time. In addition, it is shown how problemdependent heuristics can be effectively incorporated into the initialization, crossover, and mutation operators without increasing the timecomplexity. Empirical results are presented for hard problem instances with up to 500 vertices. Usually, the new approach identifies solutions superior to those of several other optimization methods within few seconds. The basic ideas of this EA are also applicable to other network optimization tasks.
LowDegree Minimum Spanning Trees
 Discrete Comput. Geom
, 1999
"... Motivated by practical VLSI routing applications, we study the maximum vertex degree of a minimum spanning tree (MST). We prove that under the Lp norm, the maximum vertex degree over all MSTs is equal to the Hadwiger number of the corresponding unit ball; we show an even tighter bound for MSTs where ..."
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Cited by 22 (1 self)
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Motivated by practical VLSI routing applications, we study the maximum vertex degree of a minimum spanning tree (MST). We prove that under the Lp norm, the maximum vertex degree over all MSTs is equal to the Hadwiger number of the corresponding unit ball; we show an even tighter bound for MSTs where the maximum degree is minimized. We give the bestknown bounds for the maximum MST degree for arbitrary Lp metrics in all dimensions, with a focus on the rectilinear metric in two and three dimensions. We show that for any finite set of points in the rectilinear plane there exists an MST with maximum degree of at most 4, and for threedimensional rectilinear space the maximum possible degree of a minimumdegree MST is either 13 or 14. 1 Introduction Minimum spanning tree (MST) construction is a classic optimization problem for which several efficient algorithms are known [9] [15] [19]. Solutions of many other problems hinge on the construction of an MST as an intermediary step [4], with th...
What Would Edmonds Do? Augmenting Paths and Witnesses for DegreeBounded MSTs
 IN PROCEEDINGS OF APPROX/RANDOM
, 2005
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A NetworkFlow Technique for Finding LowWeight BoundedDegree Spanning Trees
 JOURNAL OF ALGORITHMS
, 1996
"... Given a graph with edge weights satisfying the triangle inequality, and a degree bound for each vertex, the problem of computing a low weight spanning tree such that the degree of each vertex is at most its specified bound is considered. In particular, modifying a given spanning tree T using ad ..."
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Cited by 20 (1 self)
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Given a graph with edge weights satisfying the triangle inequality, and a degree bound for each vertex, the problem of computing a low weight spanning tree such that the degree of each vertex is at most its specified bound is considered. In particular, modifying a given spanning tree T using adoptions to meet the degree constraints is considered. A novel networkflow based algorithm for finding a good sequence of adoptions is introduced. The method yields a better performance guarantee than any previously obtained. Equally importantly, it takes this approach to the limit in the following sense: if any performance guarantee that is solely a function of the topology and edge weights of a given tree holds for any algorithm at all, then it also holds for our algorithm. The performance guarantee is the following. If the degree constraint d(v) for each v is at least 2, the algorithm is guaranteed to find a tree whose weight is at most the weight of the given tree times 2 \Gamma min n d(v)\Gamma2 deg T (v)\Gamma2 : deg T (v) ? 2 o ; where deg T (v) is the initial degree of v. Examples are provided in which no lighter tree meeting the degree constraint exists. Lineartime algorithms are provided with the same worstcase performance guarantee. Choosing T to be a minimum spanning tree yields approximation algorithms for the general problem on geometric graphs with distances induced by various Lp norms. Finally, examples of Euclidean graphs are provided in which the ratio of the lengths of an optimal Traveling Salesman path and a minimum spanning tree can be arbitrarily close to 2.