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The MultipleInput Translinear Element: A Versatile Circuit Element
 PROCEEDINGS OF THE 1998 IEEE ISCAS
, 1998
"... We define the multipleinput translinear element (MITE), a versatile circuit primitive from which we can construct lowvoltage translinear circuits and logdomain filters. A Kinput MITE produces an output current that is exponential in a weighted sum of its K input voltages. We briefly discuss s ..."
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Cited by 11 (5 self)
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We define the multipleinput translinear element (MITE), a versatile circuit primitive from which we can construct lowvoltage translinear circuits and logdomain filters. A Kinput MITE produces an output current that is exponential in a weighted sum of its K input voltages. We briefly discuss six MITE implementations and show experimental data from two of these six that we have fabricated in a 2µm doublepoly CMOS process available through MOSIS.
A FloatingGate Technology for Digital CMOS Processes
 in Proc. IEEE Intl. Symp. Circuits and Systems
, 1999
"... We discuss the possibility of developing highquality floatinggate memories and circuits in digital CMOS technologies that have only one layer of polysilicon. Here, the primary concern is whether or not we can get adequate controlgate linearity from MOS capacitors. We employ two experimental proce ..."
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Cited by 6 (1 self)
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We discuss the possibility of developing highquality floatinggate memories and circuits in digital CMOS technologies that have only one layer of polysilicon. Here, the primary concern is whether or not we can get adequate controlgate linearity from MOS capacitors. We employ two experimental proceedures to address this issue and find acceptable floatinggate circuit behavior with MOS capacitors. First, we simultaniously characterize a MOS capacitor and a linear capacitor; the experimental data show that MOS capacitors behave similarly to linear capacitors over a finite, but usable range. Second, we characterize two typical floatinggate MOS circuit primatives, a floatinggate amplifier and a multipleinput translinear element, two basic circuits that rely heavily on the linearity of the capacitors that couple into the floating gates. Our measurements show that floatinggate circuits with MOScapacitor control gates behave like their counterparts built with linear capacitors over specif...
FloatingGate Devices: They Are Not Just for Digital Memories Anymore
 Proceedings of the IEEE International Symposium on Circuits and Systems
, 1999
"... Since the first reported floatinggate structure in 1967, floatinggate transistors have been used widely to store digital information for long periods in structures such as EPROMs and EEPROMs. Recently, floatinggate devices have found applications as analog memories, analog and digital circuit elem ..."
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Cited by 4 (1 self)
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Since the first reported floatinggate structure in 1967, floatinggate transistors have been used widely to store digital information for long periods in structures such as EPROMs and EEPROMs. Recently, floatinggate devices have found applications as analog memories, analog and digital circuit elements, and adaptive processing elements. Floatinggate devices have found commerical applications, e.g. ISD, for longterm nonvolatile information storage devices for analog applications. The focus of floatinggate devices has been towards fabrication in standard CMOS processes, as opposed to the specialized processes for fabricating digital nonvolatile memories. Floatinggate circuits can be designed at any or all of three levels: analog memory elements, capacitivebased circuit elements, and adaptive circuit elements. In 1967, Kahng and Sze reported the first floatinggate structure as a mechanism for nonvolatile information storage [1]. Since then, floatinggate transistors have been use...
Floating Gate Current Mirror For Gain Correction In Cmos Translinear Circuits
 in Proc. IEEE Int. Symp. Circuits Syst
, 1999
"... The exponential behavior of MOSFETs in subthreshold operation has recently been exploited to build CMOS translinear circuits such as multipliers and logdomain filters. A major obstacle in developing a practical CMOS implementation is the variation in threshold voltage between devices. In translinea ..."
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Cited by 2 (0 self)
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The exponential behavior of MOSFETs in subthreshold operation has recently been exploited to build CMOS translinear circuits such as multipliers and logdomain filters. A major obstacle in developing a practical CMOS implementation is the variation in threshold voltage between devices. In translinear circuits, these voltage offsets manifest themselves as gain errors in the currentmode outputs. We have designed a floatinggate CMOS current mirror that can adapt its gain to compensate for these errors. The adaptation process uses only hotelectron injection, so the high voltages typically associated with tunneling are not needed. A small array of these circuits were fabricated in a standard 1.2 ¯m doublepoly CMOS process. We demonstrate gain adaptation and discuss the nonlinearity introduced by the adaptive mirror. 1. INTRODUCTION Translinear circuits use devices whose transconductance is linear with current (i.e., the current through the device is an exponential function of the input...
An Analogue VLSI Implementation of the Meddis Inner Hair Cell Model Using LogDomain Filters
 EURASIP Journal of Applied SignalProcessing
, 2000
"... An improved analogue VLSI implementation of the inner hair cell is presented. The Meddis inner hair cell model is a widely accepted, computationally convenient computer model. We transfer this model into the currentdomain and implement it using translinear and logdomain circuits. The function of t ..."
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Cited by 2 (1 self)
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An improved analogue VLSI implementation of the inner hair cell is presented. The Meddis inner hair cell model is a widely accepted, computationally convenient computer model. We transfer this model into the currentdomain and implement it using translinear and logdomain circuits. The function of the transformed model and circuit are tested against physiological data and the Meddis model. These tests include (a) rate intensity functions for onset and steady state response; (d) recovery of spontaneous activity; and (c) Lowfrequency selectivity. Our circuit mimics the Meddis model in these tests, and is flexible enough to be `tuned' to behave in a similar way to the Meddis model and to the biological inner hair cell ii Acknowledgements I would like to express by gratitude to my supervisor, Dr Andr van Schaik for opening my eyes to, the mix of analogue VLSI design and physiology, the concept of `neuromorphic engineering' and for the assistance and guidance he provided me with throughout the semester. My thanks goes to all who have given support and proof read whole or part of this documents especially my girlfriend Alexandra Lobb for her interest and continuos enthusiasm. I also wish to extend thanks to Cheng Soon Ong for valuable comments, Paul Williams and Jenny Turtle at Endocrinology, My brother, Lachlan for his insights into determining the perfect sentence structure and my both my parents.
Synthesis of MultipleInput Translinear Element Networks
"... We describe two systematic procedures for synthesizing mutlipleinput translinear element (MITE) networks that produce an output current that is equal to product of a number of input currents, each of which is raised to an arbitrary rational power. By using the first procedure, we obtain a MITE netwo ..."
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Cited by 2 (2 self)
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We describe two systematic procedures for synthesizing mutlipleinput translinear element (MITE) networks that produce an output current that is equal to product of a number of input currents, each of which is raised to an arbitrary rational power. By using the first procedure, we obtain a MITE network, called a twolayer network, that is relatively insensitive to mismatch in the MITE weight values. By using the second procedure, we arrive at a MITE network, called a cascade network, that reduces the fanin required of each MITE. We illustrate each of these procedures with an example. 1. MITE NETWORKS: THE SYNTHESIS PROBLEM We recently introduced a class of translinear circuits, called multiple input translinear element (MITE) networks, that accurately embody productofpowerlaw relationships in the current signal domain [13]. The MITE is a circuit primitive that produces an output current that is exponential in a weighted sum of the MITE's input voltages [2, 4]. For a given produ...
Adaptive quantization and density estimation in silicon,” 2002
 In submission
"... We present the bump mixture model, a statistical model for analog data where the probabilistic semantics, inference, and learning rules derive from lowlevel transistor behavior. The bump mixture model relies on translinear circuits to perform probabilistic inference, and floatinggate devices to pe ..."
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Cited by 2 (1 self)
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We present the bump mixture model, a statistical model for analog data where the probabilistic semantics, inference, and learning rules derive from lowlevel transistor behavior. The bump mixture model relies on translinear circuits to perform probabilistic inference, and floatinggate devices to perform adaptation. This system is low power, asynchronous, and fully parallel, and supports various onchip learning algorithms. In addition, the mixture model can perform several tasks such as probability estimation, vector quantization, classification, and clustering. We tested a fabricated system on clustering, quantization, and classification of handwritten digits and show performance comparable to the EM algorithm on mixtures of Gaussians. 1
The MultipleInput Translinear Element: A Versatile Circuit Element
 Proceedings of the 1998 IEEE ISCAS
, 1998
"... We define the multipleinput translinear element (MITE), a versatile circuit primitive from which we can construct lowvoltage translinear circuits and logdomain filters. A Kinput MITE produces an output current that is exponential in a weighted sum of its K input voltages. We briefly discuss s ..."
Abstract
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We define the multipleinput translinear element (MITE), a versatile circuit primitive from which we can construct lowvoltage translinear circuits and logdomain filters. A Kinput MITE produces an output current that is exponential in a weighted sum of its K input voltages. We briefly discuss six MITE implementations and show experimental data from two of these six that we have fabricated in a 2m doublepoly CMOS process available through MOSIS. 1. TRANSLINEAR CIRCUIT ELEMENTS In 1975, Barrie Gilbert [1] coined the word translinear to describe a class of nonlinear circuits whose operation is based on the exponential currentvoltage relationship of the bipolar transistor. The word translinear derives from a contraction of one way of expressing the exponential currentvoltage relationship of the bipolarthat is, the bipolar's transconduc tance is linear in the current flowing into its collector terminal. The subthreshold MOS transistor also has an exponential currentvo...