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202
Markov Logic Networks
 Machine Learning
, 2006
"... Abstract. We propose a simple approach to combining firstorder logic and probabilistic graphical models in a single representation. A Markov logic network (MLN) is a firstorder knowledge base with a weight attached to each formula (or clause). Together with a set of constants representing objects ..."
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Cited by 564 (33 self)
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Abstract. We propose a simple approach to combining firstorder logic and probabilistic graphical models in a single representation. A Markov logic network (MLN) is a firstorder knowledge base with a weight attached to each formula (or clause). Together with a set of constants representing objects in the domain, it specifies a ground Markov network containing one feature for each possible grounding of a firstorder formula in the KB, with the corresponding weight. Inference in MLNs is performed by MCMC over the minimal subset of the ground network required for answering the query. Weights are efficiently learned from relational databases by iteratively optimizing a pseudolikelihood measure. Optionally, additional clauses are learned using inductive logic programming techniques. Experiments with a realworld database and knowledge base in a university domain illustrate the promise of this approach.
A Logic for Reasoning about Probabilities
 Information and Computation
, 1990
"... We consider a language for reasoning about probability which allows us to make statements such as “the probability of E, is less than f ” and “the probability of E, is at least twice the probability of E,, ” where E, and EZ are arbitrary events. We consider the case where all events are measurable ( ..."
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Cited by 213 (20 self)
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We consider a language for reasoning about probability which allows us to make statements such as “the probability of E, is less than f ” and “the probability of E, is at least twice the probability of E,, ” where E, and EZ are arbitrary events. We consider the case where all events are measurable (i.e., represent measurable sets) and the more general case, which is also of interest in practice, where they may not be measurable. The measurable case is essentially a formalization of (the propositional fragment of) Nilsson’s probabilistic logic. As we show elsewhere, the general (nonmeasurable) case corresponds precisely to replacing probability measures by DempsterShafer belief functions. In both cases, we provide a complete axiomatization and show that the problem of deciding satistiability is NPcomplete, no worse than that of propositional logic. As a tool for proving our complete axiomatizations, we give a complete axiomatization for reasoning about Boolean combinations of linear inequalities, which is of independent interest. This proof and others make crucial use of results from the theory of linear programming. We then extend the language to allow reasoning about conditional probability and show that the resulting logic is decidable and completely axiomatizable, by making use of the theory of real closed fields. ( 1990 Academic Press. Inc 1.
Probabilistic Algorithms in Robotics
 AI Magazine vol
"... This article describes a methodology for programming robots known as probabilistic robotics. The probabilistic paradigm pays tribute to the inherent uncertainty in robot perception, relying on explicit representations of uncertainty when determining what to do. This article surveys some of the progr ..."
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Cited by 165 (9 self)
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This article describes a methodology for programming robots known as probabilistic robotics. The probabilistic paradigm pays tribute to the inherent uncertainty in robot perception, relying on explicit representations of uncertainty when determining what to do. This article surveys some of the progress in the field, using indepth examples to illustrate some of the nuts and bolts of the basic approach. Our central conjecture is that the probabilistic approach to robotics scales better to complex realworld applications than approaches that ignore a robot’s uncertainty. 1
Reasoning within Fuzzy Description Logics
 Journal of Artificial Intelligence Research
, 2001
"... Description Logics (DLs) are suitable, wellknown, logics for managing structured knowledge. They allow reasoning about individuals and well defined concepts, i.e. set of individuals with common properties. The experience in using DLs in applications has shown that in many cases we would like to ext ..."
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Cited by 150 (21 self)
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Description Logics (DLs) are suitable, wellknown, logics for managing structured knowledge. They allow reasoning about individuals and well defined concepts, i.e. set of individuals with common properties. The experience in using DLs in applications has shown that in many cases we would like to extend their capabilities. In particular, their use in the context of Multimedia Information Retrieval (MIR) leads to the convincement that such DLs should allow the treatment of the inherent imprecision in multimedia object content representation and retrieval. In this paper we will present a fuzzy extension of ALC, combining...
The Independent Choice Logic for modelling multiple agents under uncertainty
 Artificial Intelligence
, 1997
"... Inspired by game theory representations, Bayesian networks, influence diagrams, structured Markov decision process models, logic programming, and work in dynamical systems, the independent choice logic (ICL) is a semantic framework that allows for independent choices (made by various agents, includi ..."
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Cited by 148 (9 self)
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Inspired by game theory representations, Bayesian networks, influence diagrams, structured Markov decision process models, logic programming, and work in dynamical systems, the independent choice logic (ICL) is a semantic framework that allows for independent choices (made by various agents, including nature) and a logic program that gives the consequence of choices. This representation can be used as a specification for agents that act in a world, make observations of that world and have memory, as well as a modelling tool for dynamic environments with uncertainty. The rules specify the consequences of an action, what can be sensed and the utility of outcomes. This paper presents a possibleworlds semantics for ICL, and shows how to embed influence diagrams, structured Markov decision processes, and both the strategic (normal) form and extensive (gametree) form of games within the Thanks to Craig Boutilier and Holger Hoos for detailed comments on this paper. This work was supporte...
Model Checking vs. Theorem Proving: A Manifesto
, 1991
"... We argue that rather than representing an agent's knowledge as a collection of formulas, and then doing theorem proving to see if a given formula follows from an agent's knowledge base, it may be more useful to represent this knowledge by a semantic model, and then do model checking to see if the g ..."
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Cited by 117 (5 self)
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We argue that rather than representing an agent's knowledge as a collection of formulas, and then doing theorem proving to see if a given formula follows from an agent's knowledge base, it may be more useful to represent this knowledge by a semantic model, and then do model checking to see if the given formula is true in that model. We discuss how to construct a model that represents an agent's knowledge in a number of different contexts, and then consider how to approach the modelchecking problem.
Interpreting Bayesian Logic Programs
 PROCEEDINGS OF THE WORKINPROGRESS TRACK AT THE 10TH INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON INDUCTIVE LOGIC PROGRAMMING
, 2001
"... Various proposals for combining first order logic with Bayesian nets exist. We introduce the formalism of Bayesian logic programs, which is basically a simplification and reformulation of Ngo and Haddawys probabilistic logic programs. However, Bayesian logic programs are sufficiently powerful to ..."
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Cited by 109 (7 self)
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Various proposals for combining first order logic with Bayesian nets exist. We introduce the formalism of Bayesian logic programs, which is basically a simplification and reformulation of Ngo and Haddawys probabilistic logic programs. However, Bayesian logic programs are sufficiently powerful to represent essentially the same knowledge in a more elegant manner. The elegance is illustrated by the fact that they can represent both Bayesian nets and definite clause programs (as in "pure" Prolog) and that their kernel in Prolog is actually an adaptation of an usual Prolog metainterpreter.
Relational bayesian networks
 Proceedings of the 13th Conference of Uncertainty in Artificial Intelligence (UAI13
, 1997
"... A new method is developed to represent probabilistic relations on multiple random events. Where previously knowledge bases containing probabilistic rules were used for this purpose, here a probabilitydistributionover the relations is directly represented by a Bayesian network. By using a powerful wa ..."
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Cited by 101 (10 self)
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A new method is developed to represent probabilistic relations on multiple random events. Where previously knowledge bases containing probabilistic rules were used for this purpose, here a probabilitydistributionover the relations is directly represented by a Bayesian network. By using a powerful way of specifying conditional probability distributions in these networks, the resulting formalism is more expressive than the previous ones. Particularly, it provides for constraints on equalities of events, and it allows to define complex, nested combination functions. 1
A model of information retrieval based on a terminological logic
, 1993
"... According to the logical model of Information Retrieval (IR), the task of IR can be described as the extraction, from a given document base, of those documents d that, given a query q, make the formula d → q valid, where d and q are formulae of the chosen logic and “→ ” denotes the brand of logical ..."
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Cited by 93 (19 self)
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According to the logical model of Information Retrieval (IR), the task of IR can be described as the extraction, from a given document base, of those documents d that, given a query q, make the formula d → q valid, where d and q are formulae of the chosen logic and “→ ” denotes the brand of logical implication formalized by the logic in question. In this paper, although essentially subscribing to this view, we propose that the logic to be chosen for this endeavour be a Terminological Logic (TL): accordingly, the IR task becomes that of singling out those documents d such that d � q, where d and q are terms of the chosen TL and “�” denotes subsumption between terms. We call this the terminological model of IR. TLs are particularly suitable for modelling IR; in fact, they can be employed: 1) in representing documents under a variety of aspects (e.g. structural, layout, semantic content); 2) in representing queries; 3) in representing lexical, “thesaural ” knowledge. The fact that a single logical language can be used for all these representational endeavours ensures that all these sources of knowledge will participate in the retrieval process in a uniform and principled way. In this paper we introduce Mirtl, a TL for modelling IR according to the above guidelines; its syntax, formal semantics and inferential algorithm are described. 1