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66
Fast Approximation Algorithms for Fractional Packing and Covering Problems
, 1995
"... This paper presents fast algorithms that find approximate solutions for a general class of problems, which we call fractional packing and covering problems. The only previously known algorithms for solving these problems are based on general linear programming techniques. The techniques developed ..."
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Cited by 232 (14 self)
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This paper presents fast algorithms that find approximate solutions for a general class of problems, which we call fractional packing and covering problems. The only previously known algorithms for solving these problems are based on general linear programming techniques. The techniques developed in this paper greatly outperform the general methods in many applications, and are extensions of a method previously applied to find approximate solutions to multicommodity flow problems. Our algorithm is a Lagrangean relaxation technique; an important aspect of our results is that we obtain a theoretical analysis of the running time of a Lagrangean relaxationbased algorithm. We give several applications of our algorithms. The new approach yields several orders of magnitude of improvement over the best previously known running times for algorithms for the scheduling of unrelated parallel machines in both the preemptive and the nonpreemptive models, for the job shop problem, for th...
A PTAS for the Multiple Knapsack Problem
, 1993
"... The Multiple Knapsackproblem (MKP) is a natural and well known generalization of the single knapsack problem and is defined as follows. We are given a set of n items and m bins (knapsacks) such that each item i has a profit p(i) and a size s(i), and each bin j has a capacity c(j). The goal is to fin ..."
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Cited by 94 (2 self)
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The Multiple Knapsackproblem (MKP) is a natural and well known generalization of the single knapsack problem and is defined as follows. We are given a set of n items and m bins (knapsacks) such that each item i has a profit p(i) and a size s(i), and each bin j has a capacity c(j). The goal is to find a subset of items of maximum profit such that they have a feasible packing in the bins. MKP is a special case of the Generalized Assignment problem (GAP) where the profit and the size of an item can vary based on the specific bin that it is assigned to. GAP is APXhard and a 2approximation for it is implicit in the work of Shmoys and Tardos [26], and thus far, this was also the best known approximation for MKP. The main result of this paper is a polynomial time approximation scheme for MKP. Apart from its inherent theoretical interest as a common generalization of the wellstudied knapsack and bin packing problems, it appears to be the strongest special case of GAP that is not APXhard. We substantiate this by showing that slight generalizations of MKP that are very restricted versions of GAP are APXhard. Thus our results help demarcate the boundary at which instances of GAP becomeAPXhard. An interesting and novel aspect of our approach is an approximation preserving reduction from an arbitrary instance of MKP to an instance with O(log n) distinct sizes and profits.
Strengthening Integrality Gaps for Capacitated Network Design and Covering Problems
"... A capacitated covering IP is an integer program of the form min{cxUx ≥ d, 0 ≤ x ≤ b, x ∈ Z +}, where all entries of c, U, and d are nonnegative. Given such a formulation, the ratio between the optimal integer solution and the optimal solution to the linear program relaxation can be as bad as d∞ ..."
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Cited by 58 (1 self)
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A capacitated covering IP is an integer program of the form min{cxUx ≥ d, 0 ≤ x ≤ b, x ∈ Z +}, where all entries of c, U, and d are nonnegative. Given such a formulation, the ratio between the optimal integer solution and the optimal solution to the linear program relaxation can be as bad as d∞, even when U consists of a single row. We show that by adding additional inequalities, this ratio can be improved significantly. In the general case, we show that the improved ratio is bounded by the maximum number of nonzero coefficients in a row of U, and provide a polynomialtime approximation algorithm to achieve this bound. This improves the previous best approximation algorithm which guaranteed a solution within the maximum row sum times optimum. We also show that for particular instances of capacitated covering problems, including the minimum knapsack problem and the capacitated network design problem, these additional inequalities yield even stronger improvements in the IP/LP ratio. For the minimum knapsack, we show that this improved ratio is at most 2. This is the first nontrivial IP/LP ratio for this basic problem. Capacitated network design generalizes the classical network design problem by introducing capacities on the edges, whereas previous work only considers the case when all capacities equal 1. For capacitated network design problems, we show that this improved ratio depends on a parameter of the graph, and we also provide polynomialtime approximation algorithms to match this bound. This improves on the best previous mapproximation, where m is the number of edges in the graph. We also discuss improvements for some other special capacitated covering problems, including the fixed charge network flow problem. Finally, for the capacitated network design problem, we give some stronger results and algorithms for series parallel graphs and strengthen these further for outerplanar graphs. Most of our approximation algorithms rely on solving a single LP. When the original LP (before adding our strengthening inequalities) has a polynomial number of constraints, we describe a combinatorial FPTAS for the LP with our (exponentiallymany) inequalities added. Our contribution here is to describe an appropriate
Approximation Algorithms for Knapsack Problems with Cardinality Constraints
 European Journal of Operational Research
, 1998
"... We address a variant of the classical knapsack problem in which an upper bound is imposed on the number of items that can be selected. This problem arises in the solution of reallife cutting stock problems by column generation, and may be used to separate cover inequalities with small support withi ..."
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Cited by 34 (2 self)
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We address a variant of the classical knapsack problem in which an upper bound is imposed on the number of items that can be selected. This problem arises in the solution of reallife cutting stock problems by column generation, and may be used to separate cover inequalities with small support within cutting plane approaches to integer linear programs. We focus our attention on approximation algorithms for the problem, describing a linearstorage Polynomial Time Approximation Scheme (PTAS) and a dynamicprogramming based Fully Polynomial Time Approximation Scheme (FPTAS). The main ideas contained in our PTAS are used to derive PTAS for the knapsack problem and its multidimensional generalization which improve on the previously proposed PTAS. We finally illustrate better PTAS and FPTAS for the subset sum case of the problem in which profits and weights coincide. 1 Introduction The classical Knapsack Problem (KP) is defined by a set N := f1; . . . ; ng of items, each having a positive i...
Stochastic Load Balancing and Related Problems
 In FOCS
, 1999
"... We study the problems of makespan minimization (load balancing), knapsack, and bin packing when the jobs have stochastic processing requirements or sizes. If the jobs are all Poisson, we present a two approximation for the first problem using Graham's rule, and observe that polynomial time approxima ..."
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Cited by 33 (4 self)
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We study the problems of makespan minimization (load balancing), knapsack, and bin packing when the jobs have stochastic processing requirements or sizes. If the jobs are all Poisson, we present a two approximation for the first problem using Graham's rule, and observe that polynomial time approximation schemes can be obtained for the last two problems. If the jobs are all exponential, we present polynomial time approximation schemes for all three problems. We also obtain quasipolynomial time approximation schemes for the last two problems if the jobs are Bernoulli variables. 1 Introduction In traditional scheduling problems, each job has a known deterministic size and duration. There are cases, however, where the exact size of a job is not known at the time when a scheduling decision needs to be made; all that is known is a probability distribution on the size of the job. Given a schedule, the value of the objective function itself becomes a random variable. The goal then is to find...
Adaptive Scheduling Server for PowerAware RealTime Tasks
 ACM Transactions on Embedded Computing Systems
, 2003
"... In this paper we propose a novel scheduling framework for a dynamic realtime environment with energy constraints. This framework dynamically adjusts the CPU voltage/frequency so that no task in the system misses its deadline and the total energy savings of the system are maximized. ..."
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Cited by 29 (0 self)
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In this paper we propose a novel scheduling framework for a dynamic realtime environment with energy constraints. This framework dynamically adjusts the CPU voltage/frequency so that no task in the system misses its deadline and the total energy savings of the system are maximized.
Toward a model for backtracking and dynamic programming
 Comput. Compl
"... We propose a model called priority branching trees (pBT) for backtracking and dynamic programming algorithms. Our model generalizes both the priority model of Borodin, Nielson and Rackoff, as well as a simple dynamic programming model due to Woeginger, and hence spans a wide spectrum of algorithms. ..."
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Cited by 25 (7 self)
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We propose a model called priority branching trees (pBT) for backtracking and dynamic programming algorithms. Our model generalizes both the priority model of Borodin, Nielson and Rackoff, as well as a simple dynamic programming model due to Woeginger, and hence spans a wide spectrum of algorithms. After witnessing the strength of the model, we then show its limitations by providing lower bounds for algorithms in this model for several classical problems such as Interval Scheduling, Knapsack and Satisfiability.
A polynomial time approximation scheme for the multiple knapsack problem
 SIAM J. Comput
"... Abstract. The multiple knapsack problem (MKP) is a natural and wellknown generalization of the single knapsack problem and is defined as follows. We are given a set of n items and m bins (knapsacks) such that each item i has a profit p(i) and a size s(i), and each bin j has a capacity c(j). The goa ..."
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Cited by 17 (0 self)
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Abstract. The multiple knapsack problem (MKP) is a natural and wellknown generalization of the single knapsack problem and is defined as follows. We are given a set of n items and m bins (knapsacks) such that each item i has a profit p(i) and a size s(i), and each bin j has a capacity c(j). The goal is to find a subset of items of maximum profit such that they have a feasible packing in the bins. MKP is a special case of the generalized assignment problem (GAP) where the profit and the size of an item can vary based on the specific bin that it is assigned to. GAP is APXhard and a 2approximation, for it is implicit in the work of Shmoys and Tardos [Math. Program. A, 62 (1993), pp. 461–474], and thus far, this was also the best known approximation for MKP. The main result of this paper is a polynomial time approximation scheme (PTAS) for MKP. Apart from its inherent theoretical interest as a common generalization of the wellstudied knapsack and bin packing problems, it appears to be the strongest special case of GAP that is not APXhard. We substantiate this by showing that slight generalizations of MKP are APXhard. Thus our results help demarcate the boundary at which instances of GAP become APXhard. An interesting aspect of our approach is a PTASpreserving reduction from an arbitrary instance of MKP to an instance with O(log n) distinct sizes and profits.
Automating Enterprise Application Placement in Resource Utilities
, 2003
"... This paper presents an approach for automating such exercises. We characterize the complex time varying demands of such applications and then assign them to a small number of servers such that their capacity requirements are satis ed. The approach can be repeated on an ongoing basis to ensure ..."
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Cited by 16 (5 self)
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This paper presents an approach for automating such exercises. We characterize the complex time varying demands of such applications and then assign them to a small number of servers such that their capacity requirements are satis ed. The approach can be repeated on an ongoing basis to ensure the continued ecient use of resources. A case study using data from 41 data center servers is used to demonstrate the eectiveness of the technique
Scheduling Malleable Parallel Tasks: An Asymptotic Fully PolynomialTime Approximation Scheme
 Algorithmica
, 2004
"... A malleable parallel task is one whose execution time is a function of the number of (identical) processors allotted to it. We study the problem of scheduling a set of n independent malleable tasks on an arbitrary number m of parallel processors and propose an asymptotic fully polynomial time app ..."
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Cited by 16 (2 self)
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A malleable parallel task is one whose execution time is a function of the number of (identical) processors allotted to it. We study the problem of scheduling a set of n independent malleable tasks on an arbitrary number m of parallel processors and propose an asymptotic fully polynomial time approximation scheme. For any xed > 0, the algorithm computes a nonpreemptive schedule of length at most (1 + ) times the optimum (plus an additive term) and has running time polynomial in n; m and 1=.