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A flexible new technique for camera calibration
 IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence
"... (updated on Aug. 10, 2002; a typo in Appendix B) (last updated on Aug. 13, 2008; a typo in Section 3.3) ..."
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Cited by 821 (12 self)
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(updated on Aug. 10, 2002; a typo in Appendix B) (last updated on Aug. 13, 2008; a typo in Section 3.3)
Secure spread spectrum watermarking for multimedia
 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON IMAGE PROCESSING
, 1997
"... This paper presents a secure (tamperresistant) algorithm for watermarking images, and a methodology for digital watermarking that may be generalized to audio, video, and multimedia data. We advocate that a watermark should be constructed as an independent and identically distributed (i.i.d.) Gauss ..."
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Cited by 802 (10 self)
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This paper presents a secure (tamperresistant) algorithm for watermarking images, and a methodology for digital watermarking that may be generalized to audio, video, and multimedia data. We advocate that a watermark should be constructed as an independent and identically distributed (i.i.d.) Gaussian random vector that is imperceptibly inserted in a spreadspectrumlike fashion into the perceptually most significant spectral components of the data. We argue that insertion of a watermark under this regime makes the watermark robust to signal processing operations (such as lossy compression, filtering, digitalanalog and analogdigital conversion, requantization, etc.), and common geometric transformations (such as cropping, scaling, translation, and rotation) provided that the original image is available and that it can be succesfully registered against the transformed watermarked image. In these cases, the watermark detector unambiguously identifies the owner. Further, the use of Gaussian noise, ensures strong resilience to multipledocument, or collusional, attacks. Experimental results are provided to support these claims, along with an exposition of pending open problems.
Plenoptic Modeling: An ImageBased Rendering System
, 1995
"... Imagebased rendering is a powerful new approach for generating realtime photorealistic computer graphics. It can provide convincing animations without an explicit geometric representation. We use the “plenoptic function” of Adelson and Bergen to provide a concise problem statement for imagebased ..."
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Cited by 659 (18 self)
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Imagebased rendering is a powerful new approach for generating realtime photorealistic computer graphics. It can provide convincing animations without an explicit geometric representation. We use the “plenoptic function” of Adelson and Bergen to provide a concise problem statement for imagebased rendering paradigms, such as morphing and view interpolation. The plenoptic function is a parameterized function for describing everything that is visible from a given point in space. We present an imagebased rendering system based on sampling, reconstructing, and resampling the plenoptic function. In addition, we introduce a novel visible surface algorithm and a geometric invariant for cylindrical projections that is equivalent to the epipolar constraint defined for planar projections.
Determining the Epipolar Geometry and its Uncertainty: A Review
 International Journal of Computer Vision
, 1998
"... Two images of a single scene/object are related by the epipolar geometry, which can be described by a 3×3 singular matrix called the essential matrix if images' internal parameters are known, or the fundamental matrix otherwise. It captures all geometric information contained in two images, an ..."
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Cited by 319 (7 self)
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Two images of a single scene/object are related by the epipolar geometry, which can be described by a 3×3 singular matrix called the essential matrix if images' internal parameters are known, or the fundamental matrix otherwise. It captures all geometric information contained in two images, and its determination is very important in many applications such as scene modeling and vehicle navigation. This paper gives an introduction to the epipolar geometry, and provides a complete review of the current techniques for estimating the fundamental matrix and its uncertainty. A wellfounded measure is proposed to compare these techniques. Projective reconstruction is also reviewed. The software which we have developed for this review is available on the Internet.
Flexible camera calibration by viewing a plane from unknown orientations
 in ICCV
, 1999
"... We propose a flexible new technique to easily calibrate a camera. It only requires the camera to observe a planar pattern shown at a few (at least two) different orientations. Either the camera or the planar pattern can be freely moved. The motion need not be known. Radial lens distortion is modeled ..."
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Cited by 309 (6 self)
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We propose a flexible new technique to easily calibrate a camera. It only requires the camera to observe a planar pattern shown at a few (at least two) different orientations. Either the camera or the planar pattern can be freely moved. The motion need not be known. Radial lens distortion is modeled. The proposed procedure consists of a closedform solution, followed by a nonlinear refinement based on the maximum likelihood criterion. Both computer simulation and real data have been used to test the proposed technique, and very good results have been obtained. Compared with classical techniques which use expensive equipment such as two or three orthogonal planes, the proposed technique is easy to use and flexible. It advances 3D computer vision one step from laboratory environments to real world use. The corresponding software is available from the author’s Web page.
An Efficient Solution to the FivePoint Relative Pose Problem
, 2004
"... An efficient algorithmic solution to the classical fivepoint relative pose problem is presented. The problem is to find the possible solutions for relative camera pose between two calibrated views given five corresponding points. The algorithm consists of computing the coefficients of a tenth degre ..."
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Cited by 299 (11 self)
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An efficient algorithmic solution to the classical fivepoint relative pose problem is presented. The problem is to find the possible solutions for relative camera pose between two calibrated views given five corresponding points. The algorithm consists of computing the coefficients of a tenth degree polynomial in closed form and subsequently finding its roots. It is the first algorithm well suited for numerical implementation that also corresponds to the inherent complexity of the problem. We investigate the numerical precision of the algorithm. We also study its performance under noise in minimal as well as overdetermined cases. The performance is compared to that of the well known 8 and 7point methods and a 6point scheme. The algorithm is used in a robust hypothesizeandtest framework to estimate structure and motion in realtime with low delay. The realtime system uses solely visual input and has been demonstrated at major conferences.
Creating Full View Panoramic Image Mosaics and Environment Maps
, 1997
"... This paper presents a novel approach to creating full view panoramic mosaics from image sequences. Unlike current panoramic stitching methods, which usually require pure horizontal camera panning, our system does not require any controlled motions or constraints on how the images are taken (as long ..."
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Cited by 271 (26 self)
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This paper presents a novel approach to creating full view panoramic mosaics from image sequences. Unlike current panoramic stitching methods, which usually require pure horizontal camera panning, our system does not require any controlled motions or constraints on how the images are taken (as long as there is no strong motion parallax). For example, images taken from a handheld digital camera can be stitched seamlessly into panoramic mosaics. Because we represent our image mosaics using a set of transforms, there are no singularity problems such as those existing at the top and bottom of cylindrical or spherical maps. Our algorithm is fast and robust because it directly recovers 3D rotations instead of general 8 parameter planar perspective transforms. Methods to recover camera focal length are also presented. We also present an algorithm for efficiently extracting environment maps from our image mosaics. By mapping the mosaic onto an artibrary texturemapped polyhedron surrounding t...
Imagebased visual hulls
 IN PROCEEDINGS OF ACM SIGGRAPH 2000
, 2000
"... In this paper, we describe an efficient imagebased approach to computing and shading visual hulls from silhouette image data. Our algorithm takes advantage of epipolar geometry and incremental computation to achieve a constant rendering cost per rendered pixel. It does not suffer from the computati ..."
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Cited by 268 (14 self)
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In this paper, we describe an efficient imagebased approach to computing and shading visual hulls from silhouette image data. Our algorithm takes advantage of epipolar geometry and incremental computation to achieve a constant rendering cost per rendered pixel. It does not suffer from the computation complexity, limited resolution, or quantization artifacts of previous volumetric approaches. We demonstrate the use of this algorithm in a realtime virtualized reality application running off a small number of video streams.
Video mosaics for virtual environments
 IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications
, 1996
"... By panning a camera over a scene and automatically compositing the video frames, this system creates large panoramic images of arbitrary shape and detail. Depth recovery from motion parallax also enables limited 3D rendering. The use of photographic imagery as part of the computer graphics creation ..."
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Cited by 257 (12 self)
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By panning a camera over a scene and automatically compositing the video frames, this system creates large panoramic images of arbitrary shape and detail. Depth recovery from motion parallax also enables limited 3D rendering. The use of photographic imagery as part of the computer graphics creation process is a well established and popular technique. Still imagery can be used in a variety of ways, including the manipulation and compositing of photographs inside video paint systems, and the texture mapping of still photographs onto 3D graphical models to achieve photorealism. Although laborious, it is also possible to merge 3D computer graphics seamlessly with video imagery to produce dramatic special effects. As computerbased video becomes ubiquitous with the expansion of transmission, storage, and manipulation capabilities, it will offer a rich source of imagery for computer graphics applications. This article looks at one way to use video as a new source of highresolution, photorealistic imagery for these applications. In its current broadcaststandard forms, video is a lowresolution medium that compares poorly with computer displays and scanned imagery. It also suffers, as do all input imaging devices, from a limited field of view.
SemiAutomatic Generation of Transfer Functions for Direct Volume Rendering
 In IEEE Symposium on Volume Visualization
, 1998
"... Although direct volume rendering is a powerful tool for visualizing complex structures within volume data, the size and complexity of the parameter space controlling the rendering process makes generating an informative rendering challenging. In particular, the specification of the transfer function ..."
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Cited by 242 (7 self)
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Although direct volume rendering is a powerful tool for visualizing complex structures within volume data, the size and complexity of the parameter space controlling the rendering process makes generating an informative rendering challenging. In particular, the specification of the transfer function  the mapping from data values to renderable optical properties  is frequently a timeconsuming and unintuitive task. Ideally, the data being visualized should itself suggest an appropriate transfer function that brings out the features of interest without obscuring them with elements of little importance. We demonstrate that this is possible for a large class of scalar volume data, namely that where the regions of interest are the boundaries between different materials. A transfer function which makes boundaries readily visible can be generated from the relationship between three quantities: the data value and its first and second directional derivatives along the gradient direction. ...