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68
2005a, “Towards Intelligent Miniature Flying Robots
 In Proc. of Field and Service Robotics
, 2005
"... Summary. This paper presents a practical method for smallscale VTOL 3 design. It helps for elements selection and dimensioning. We apply the latter to design a fully autonomous quadrotor with numerous innovations in design methodology, steering and propulsion achieving 100 % thrust margin for 30min ..."
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Cited by 8 (5 self)
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Summary. This paper presents a practical method for smallscale VTOL 3 design. It helps for elements selection and dimensioning. We apply the latter to design a fully autonomous quadrotor with numerous innovations in design methodology, steering and propulsion achieving 100 % thrust margin for 30min autonomy. The robot is capable of rotational and translational motion estimation. Finally, we derive a nonlinear dynamics simulation model, perform a simulation with a PD test controller and test successfully the robot in a real flight. We are confident that ”OS4 ” is a significant progress towards intelligent miniature quadrotors. Key words: VTOL design, quadrotor, quadrotor modelling 1
Nonlinear Control and Reduction of Underactuated Systems with Symmetry II: . . .
 PROC. OF THE 40TH CONF. ON DECISION AND CONTROL
, 2001
"... In this paper, we address nonlinear control and reduction of two classes of highorder underactuated mechanical systems with kinetic symmetry called ClassII and ClassIII systems. ClassII systems are underactuated systems with unactuated shape variables, decoupled inputs, and integrable normalized ..."
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Cited by 7 (0 self)
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In this paper, we address nonlinear control and reduction of two classes of highorder underactuated mechanical systems with kinetic symmetry called ClassII and ClassIII systems. ClassII systems are underactuated systems with unactuated shape variables, decoupled inputs, and integrable normalized momentums (all to be de ned). We show that all ClassII underactuated systems can be transformed into cascade systems in nontriangular quadratic form using an explicit change of coordinates and control. In addition, we characterize a subclass of ClassII systems, called ClassIII systems, that can be explicitly transformed into cascade systems in strict feedforward form. This allows application of existing nonlinear control design methods like nested saturations and feedforwarding to control of underactuated systems.
Dynamic Constraintbased Optimal Shape Trajectory Planner for ShapeAccelerated Underactuated Balancing Systems
"... Abstract — This paper presents an optimal shape trajectory planner for shapeaccelerated underactuated balancing systems, which are destabilized by gravitational forces. These systems have unactuated shape variables and fully actuated external variables. They also have the same number of actuated an ..."
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Cited by 7 (6 self)
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Abstract — This paper presents an optimal shape trajectory planner for shapeaccelerated underactuated balancing systems, which are destabilized by gravitational forces. These systems have unactuated shape variables and fully actuated external variables. They also have the same number of actuated and unactuated degrees of freedom. Their equations of motion result in nonholonomic acceleration/dynamic constraints, which relate the acceleration of external variables to the position, velocity and acceleration of shape variables. This paper describes a procedure to use the dynamic constraints for planning shape trajectories, which when tracked will result in optimal tracking of desired external configuration trajectories. Examples of planned optimal shape trajectories for the 3D ballbot system, which is a 3D omnidirectional wheeled inverted pendulum, are also presented. I.
Backstepping/nonlinearH∞ control for path tracking of a quadrotor unmanned aerial vehicle
 In Proc. of the 2008 American control conference — ACC2008
, 2008
"... Abstract — This paper presents a nonlinear robust control strategy to solve the path tracking problem for a quadrotor unmanned aerial vehicle. The helicopter motion equations is obtained by the LagrangeEuler formalism. The control structure is performed through a nonlinear H ∞ controller to stabil ..."
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Cited by 6 (0 self)
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Abstract — This paper presents a nonlinear robust control strategy to solve the path tracking problem for a quadrotor unmanned aerial vehicle. The helicopter motion equations is obtained by the LagrangeEuler formalism. The control structure is performed through a nonlinear H ∞ controller to stabilize the rotational movements and a control law based on backstepping approach to track the reference trajectory. Finally, simulations results in presence of aerodynamic moments disturbances and parametric uncertainty is carried out to corroborate the effectiveness and the robustness of the strategy proposed. Index Terms — Nonlinear H ∞ control, backstepping approach, robust control, autonomous aerial vehicle.
Flight PID controller design for a UAV quadrotor
 Sci. Res. Essays
"... This paper presents the modeling of a four rotor vertical takeoff and landing (VTOL) unmanned air vehicle known as the quad rotor aircraft. The paper presents a new model design method for the flight control of an autonomous quad rotor. The paper describes the controller architecture for the quad r ..."
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Cited by 5 (0 self)
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This paper presents the modeling of a four rotor vertical takeoff and landing (VTOL) unmanned air vehicle known as the quad rotor aircraft. The paper presents a new model design method for the flight control of an autonomous quad rotor. The paper describes the controller architecture for the quad rotor as well. The dynamic model of the quadrotor, which is an under actuated aircraft with fixed four pitch angle rotors was described. The Modeling of a quad rotor vehicle is not an easy task because of its complex structure. The aim is to develop a model of the vehicle as realistic as possible. The model is used to design a stable and accurate controller. This paper explains the developments of a PID (proportionalintegralderivative) control method to obtain stability in flying the Quadrotor flying object. The model has four input forces which are basically the thrust provided by each propeller connected to each rotor with fixed angle. Forward (backward) motion is maintained by increasing (decreasing) speed of front (rear) rotor speed while decreasing (increasing) rear (front) rotor speed simultaneously which means changing the pitch angle. Left and right motion is accomplished by changing roll angle by the same way. The front and rear motors rotate counterclockwise while other motors rotate clockwise so that the yaw command is derived by increasing (decreasing) counterclockwise motors speed while decreasing (increasing) clockwise motor speeds.
Mechanical design of a new pneumatically driven underactuated hand
 Robotics and Automation, 2007 IEEE International Conference
, 2007
"... AbstractThis paper presents a new pneumatically driven underactuated hand with two fingers and 3 phalanxes per finger. Two evidences have led the design of this hand. Firstly, the use of pneumatic energy facilitates the underactuation of the hand, indeed a single Tconnector suffices to share out ..."
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AbstractThis paper presents a new pneumatically driven underactuated hand with two fingers and 3 phalanxes per finger. Two evidences have led the design of this hand. Firstly, the use of pneumatic energy facilitates the underactuation of the hand, indeed a single Tconnector suffices to share out one input among two outputs. Secondly, nonbackdrivable mechanisms have to be used in the transmission of phalanx's motion so that the hand is capable of producing formclosed grasps. This latter design principle is justified using a newly developed method that permits to study the formclosure property of a grasp exerted by an underactuated hand. Moreover, the intriguing ejection phenomenon is avoided thanks to nonbackdrivable mechanisms that prohibit any backward motion of phalanxes when correctly positioned. An original mechanism called the "pneumatic parallelogram" is described, it enables the hand to perform fine pinch grasps. Finally, the optimal design of both fingers is addressed with respect to the forceisotropy of the finger and the positiveness of phalanx forces.
Swingup and stabilization control of invertedpendulum systems via coupled slidingmode control method
 IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics
"... Abstract—This paper presents a coupled slidingmode control (SMC) of invertedpendulum systems. An SMC law is designed to force a coupled sliding surface (which consists of sliding surfaces of both actuated and unactuated subsystems) to be reached in finite time, such that zero dynamics are generate ..."
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Abstract—This paper presents a coupled slidingmode control (SMC) of invertedpendulum systems. An SMC law is designed to force a coupled sliding surface (which consists of sliding surfaces of both actuated and unactuated subsystems) to be reached in finite time, such that zero dynamics are generated in the form of a secondorder damped and forced nonlinear differential equation. The stability analysis is provided to show that the resulting zero dynamics is guaranteed to be semiglobally asymptotically stable over the upper halfplane as well as over the whole plane except the horizon. This property is maintained even in the presence of the matched disturbance by virtue of the slidingmode approach. Using the semiglobal nature of the stability of the zero dynamics, the aggressive swingup (in one time, without swinging motion) and stabilization control can be achieved by a single coupled SMC law, without involving the switching (or hybrid) scheme in the previous works. The performance of the proposed method is demonstrated in both numerical simulations and experiments for the swingup and stabilization control of invertedpendulum systems such as cartpendulum and Furutapendulum. Index Terms—Aggressive swingup and stabilization, coupled slidingmode control (SMC), coupled sliding surface, invertedpendulum systems, semiglobal asymptotic stability of zero dynamics. I.
A Direct Lyapunov Approach for a Class of Underactuated Mechanical Systems
"... Abstract — A Lyapunov direct method is proposed for a class of underactuated, mechanical systems. The direct method is derived in general for systems having n degrees of freedom of which only m < n are actuated. The applications consist of a class of systems where the elements of the mass/inertia ..."
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Cited by 4 (1 self)
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Abstract — A Lyapunov direct method is proposed for a class of underactuated, mechanical systems. The direct method is derived in general for systems having n degrees of freedom of which only m < n are actuated. The applications consist of a class of systems where the elements of the mass/inertia matrix and the gravitational forces/torques are either constants or functions of a single generalized position variable and where n is two and m is one. The time derivative of the candidate Lyapunov function produces a relation that is solved via a matching method. Some of the matching equations consist of linear differential and partial differential equations. It is shown for this class of systems, that the solutions of these linear differential and partial differential equations necessary for assuring asymptotic stability can be evaluated numerically as part of the feedback process. Examples are presented involving an inverted pendulum cart and an inertia wheel pendulum. I.
The Ballbot: An Omnidirectional Balancing Mobile Robot
"... Abstract—The ballbot is a humansized dynamically stable mobile robot that balances on a single ball. Unlike staticallystablemobilerobots,theballbotistallandnarrow with a high center of gravity and a small footprint. Moreover,itsdynamicstabilityenablesittobephysicallyinteractive. These characteristi ..."
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Cited by 3 (2 self)
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Abstract—The ballbot is a humansized dynamically stable mobile robot that balances on a single ball. Unlike staticallystablemobilerobots,theballbotistallandnarrow with a high center of gravity and a small footprint. Moreover,itsdynamicstabilityenablesittobephysicallyinteractive. These characteristics make it better suited to navigate and interact in cluttered human environments. This paper presents the evolved hardware design of the ballbot with a fourwheel inverse mouseball drive to actuate the ball, and a yaw drive mechanism that enables unlimited rotation about its vertical axis. The ballbot also has a triad of legs thatprovidestaticstabilitywhenpowereddown.Thispaper presents a detailed description of the ballbot’s control architecture, and it presents several experimental results that demonstrate its balancing and locomotion capabilities. This paper also presents a trajectory planning algorithm thatplansforbodyleanmotions,whichwhentrackedresult in the desired resttorest motions of the robot. Finally, the paper illustrates some interesting humanrobot physical interaction behaviors that can be achieved as a result of the ballbot’s dynamic stability. I.