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61
Why and Where: A Characterization of Data Provenance
 In ICDT
, 2001
"... With the proliferation of database views and curated databases, the issue of data provenance # where a piece of data came from and the process by which it arrived in the database # is becoming increasingly important, especially in scienti#c databases where understanding provenance is crucial to ..."
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Cited by 430 (18 self)
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With the proliferation of database views and curated databases, the issue of data provenance # where a piece of data came from and the process by which it arrived in the database # is becoming increasingly important, especially in scienti#c databases where understanding provenance is crucial to the accuracy and currency of data. In this paper we describe an approach to computing provenance when the data of interest has been created by a database query.We adopt a syntactic approach and present results for a general data model that applies to relational databases as well as to hierarchical data such as XML. A novel aspect of our work is a distinction between #why" provenance #refers to the source data that had some in#uence on the existence of the data# and #where" provenance #refers to the location#s# in the source databases from which the data was extracted#.
Principles of Programming with Complex Objects and Collection Types
 Theoretical Computer Science
, 1995
"... We present a new principle for the development of database query languages that the primitive operations should be organized around types. Viewing a relational database as consisting of sets of records, this principle dictates that we should investigate separately operations for records and sets. Th ..."
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Cited by 146 (29 self)
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We present a new principle for the development of database query languages that the primitive operations should be organized around types. Viewing a relational database as consisting of sets of records, this principle dictates that we should investigate separately operations for records and sets. There are two immediate advantages of this approach, which is partly inspired by basic ideas from category theory. First, it provides a language for structures in which record and set types may be freely combined: nested relations or complex objects. Second, the fundamental operations for sets are closely related to those for other "collection types" such as bags or lists, and this suggests how database languages may be uniformly extended to these new types. The most general operation on sets, that of structural recursion, is one in which not all programs are welldefined. In looking for limited forms of this operation that always give rise to welldefined operations, we find a number of close ...
Relational Expressive Power of Constraint Query Languages
"... ... In the course of proving these results for the activedomain semantics, we establish Ramseytype theorems saying that any query involving certain kinds of constraints coincides with a constraintfree query on databases whose elements come from a certain infinite subset of the domain. To prove th ..."
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Cited by 82 (18 self)
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... In the course of proving these results for the activedomain semantics, we establish Ramseytype theorems saying that any query involving certain kinds of constraints coincides with a constraintfree query on databases whose elements come from a certain infinite subset of the domain. To prove the collapse results for the natural semantics, we make use of techniques from nonstandard analysis and from the model theory of ordered structures.
A data transformation system for biological data sources
 In Proceedings of the 21st International Conference on Very Large Data Bases (VLDB
, 1995
"... Publisher's PDF, also known as Version of record ..."
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Cited by 79 (20 self)
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Publisher's PDF, also known as Version of record
Query Languages for Bags and Aggregate Functions
 Journal of Computer and System Sciences
, 1997
"... Theoretical foundations for querying databases based on bags are studied in this paper. We fully determine the strength of many polynomialtime bag operators relative to an ambient query language. Then we obtain BQL, a query language for bags, by picking the strongest combination of these operators. ..."
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Cited by 57 (32 self)
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Theoretical foundations for querying databases based on bags are studied in this paper. We fully determine the strength of many polynomialtime bag operators relative to an ambient query language. Then we obtain BQL, a query language for bags, by picking the strongest combination of these operators. The relationship between the nested relational algebra and various fragments of BQL is investigated. The precise amount of extra power that BQL possesses over the nested relational algebra is determined. It is shown that the additional expressiveness of BQL amounts to adding aggregate functions to a relational language. The expressive power of BQL and related languages is investigated in depth. We prove that these languages possess the conservative extension property. That is, the expressibility of queries in these languages is independent of the nesting height of intermediate data. Using this result, we show that recursive queries, such as transitive closure, are not definable in BQL. A ne...
Towards Tractable Algebras for Bags
, 1993
"... Bags, i.e. sets with duplicates, are often used to implement relations in database systems. In this paper, we study the expressive power of algebras for manipulating bags. The algebra we present is a simple extension of the nested relation algebra. Our aim is to investigate how the use of bags in ..."
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Cited by 56 (5 self)
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Bags, i.e. sets with duplicates, are often used to implement relations in database systems. In this paper, we study the expressive power of algebras for manipulating bags. The algebra we present is a simple extension of the nested relation algebra. Our aim is to investigate how the use of bags in the language extends its expressive power, and increases its complexity. We consider two main issues, namely (i) the impact of the depth of bag nesting on the expressive power, and (ii) the complexity and the expressive power induced by the algebraic operations. We show that the bag algebra is more expressive than the nested relation algebra (at all levels of nesting), and that the difference may be subtle. We establish a hierarchy based on the structure of algebra expressions. This hierarchy is shown to be highly related to the properties of the powerset operator. Invited to a special issue of the Journal of Computer and System Sciences selected from ACM Princ. of Database Systems,...
Optimizing Object Queries Using an Effective Calculus
 ACM TODS
"... Objectoriented databases (OODBs) provide powerful data abstractions and modeling facilities, but they generally lack a suitable framework for query processing and optimization. The development of an effective query optimizer is one of the key factors for OODB systems to successfully compete with r ..."
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Cited by 55 (2 self)
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Objectoriented databases (OODBs) provide powerful data abstractions and modeling facilities, but they generally lack a suitable framework for query processing and optimization. The development of an effective query optimizer is one of the key factors for OODB systems to successfully compete with relational systems, as well as to meet the performance requirements of many nontraditional applications. We propose an effective framework with a solid theoretical basis for optimizing OODB query languages. Our calculus, called the monoid comprehension calculus, captures most features of ODMG OQL, and is a good basis for expressing various optimization algorithms concisely. This article concentrates on query unnesting (also known as query decorrelation), an optimization that, even though it improves performance considerably, is not treated properly (if at all) by most OODB systems. Our framework generalizes many unnesting techniques proposed recently in the literature, and is capable of removing any form of query nesting using a very simple and efficient algorithm. The simplicity of our method is due to the use of the monoid comprehension calculus as an intermediate form for OODB queries. The monoid comprehension calculus treats operations over multiple collection types, aggregates, and quantifiers in a similar way, resulting in a
The Power of Languages for the Manipulation of Complex Values
 VLDB Journal
, 1995
"... Abstract. Various models and languages for describing and manipulating hierarchically structured data have been proposed. Algebraic, calculusbased, and logicprogramming oriented languages have all been considered. This article presents a general model for complex values (i.e., values with hierarc ..."
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Cited by 50 (1 self)
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Abstract. Various models and languages for describing and manipulating hierarchically structured data have been proposed. Algebraic, calculusbased, and logicprogramming oriented languages have all been considered. This article presents a general model for complex values (i.e., values with hierarchical structures), and languages for it based on the three paradigms. The algebraic language generalizes those presented in the literature; it is shown to be related to the functional style of programming advocated by Backus (1978). The notion of domain independence (from relational databases) is defined, and syntactic restrictions (referred to as safety conditions) on calculus queries are formulated to guarantee domain independence. The main results are: The domainindependent calculus, the safe calculus, the algebra, and the logicprogramming oriented language have equivalent expressive power. In particular, recursive queries, such as the transitive closure, can be expressed in each of the languages. For this result, the algebra needs the powerset operation. A more restricted version of safety is presented, such that the restricted safe calculus is equivalent to the algebra without the powerset. The results are extended to the case where arbitrary functions and predicates are used in the languages. Key Words. Database, query language, complex value, complex object, database model.
Deciding Containment for Queries with Complex Objects and Aggregations
, 1997
"... We address the problem of query containment and query equivalence for complex objects. We show that for a certain conjunctive query language for complex objects, query containment and weak query equivalence are decidable. Our results have two consequences. First, when the answers of the two queries ..."
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Cited by 47 (6 self)
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We address the problem of query containment and query equivalence for complex objects. We show that for a certain conjunctive query language for complex objects, query containment and weak query equivalence are decidable. Our results have two consequences. First, when the answers of the two queries are guaranteed not to contain empty sets, then weak equivalence coincides with equivalence, and our result answers partially an open problem about the equivalence of nest; unnest queries for complex objects [GPG90]. Second, we derive an NPcomplete algorithm for checking the equivalence of certain conjunctive queries with grouping and aggregates. Our results rely on a translation of the containment and equivalence conditions for complex objects into novel conditions on conjunctive queries, which we call simulation and strong simulation. These conditions are more complex than containment of conjunctive queries, because they involve arbitrary numbers of quantifier alternations. We prove that c...