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Improved Steiner Tree Approximation in Graphs
, 2000
"... The Steiner tree problem in weighted graphs seeks a minimum weight connected subgraph containing a given subset of the vertices (terminals). We present a new polynomialtime heuristic with an approximation ratio approaching 1 + 2 1:55, which improves upon the previously bestknown approximation ..."
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Cited by 213 (6 self)
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The Steiner tree problem in weighted graphs seeks a minimum weight connected subgraph containing a given subset of the vertices (terminals). We present a new polynomialtime heuristic with an approximation ratio approaching 1 + 2 1:55, which improves upon the previously bestknown approximation algorithm of [10] with performance ratio 1:59.
Tighter Bounds for Graph Steiner Tree Approximation
 SIAM Journal on Discrete Mathematics
, 2005
"... Abstract. The classical Steiner tree problem in weighted graphs seeks a minimum weight connected subgraph containing a given subset of the vertices (terminals). We present a new polynomialln 3 time heuristic that achieves a bestknown approximation ratio of 1 + โ 1.55 for general graphs 2 and best ..."
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Cited by 76 (7 self)
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Abstract. The classical Steiner tree problem in weighted graphs seeks a minimum weight connected subgraph containing a given subset of the vertices (terminals). We present a new polynomialln 3 time heuristic that achieves a bestknown approximation ratio of 1 + โ 1.55 for general graphs 2 and bestknown approximation ratios of โ 1.28 for both quasibipartite graphs (i.e., where no two nonterminals are adjacent) and complete graphs with edge weights 1 and 2. Our method is considerably simpler and easier to implement than previous approaches. We also prove the first known nontrivial performance bound (1.5 ยท OPT) for the iterated 1Steiner heuristic of Kahng and Robins in quasibipartite graphs.
Closing the Gap: NearOptimal Steiner Trees in Polynomial Time
 IEEE Trans. ComputerAided Design
, 1994
"... The minimum rectilinear Steiner tree (MRST) problem arises in global routing and wiring estimation, as well as in many other areas. The MRST problem is known to be NPhard, and the best performing MRST heuristic to date is the Iterated 1Steiner (I1S) method recently proposed by Kahng and Robins. In ..."
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Cited by 43 (13 self)
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The minimum rectilinear Steiner tree (MRST) problem arises in global routing and wiring estimation, as well as in many other areas. The MRST problem is known to be NPhard, and the best performing MRST heuristic to date is the Iterated 1Steiner (I1S) method recently proposed by Kahng and Robins. In this paper we develop a straightforward, efficient implementation of I1S, achieving a speedup factor of three orders of magnitude over previous implementations. We also give a parallel implementation that achieves nearlinear speedup on multiple processors. Several performanceimproving enhancements enable us to obtain Steiner trees with average cost within 0.25% of optimal, and our methods produce optimal solutions in up to 90% of the cases for typical nets. We generalize I1S and its variants to three dimensions, as well as to the case where all the pins lie on k parallel planes, which arises in, e.g., multilayer routing. Motivated by the goal of reducing the running times of our algorith...
LowDegree Minimum Spanning Trees
 Discrete Comput. Geom
, 1999
"... Motivated by practical VLSI routing applications, we study the maximum vertex degree of a minimum spanning tree (MST). We prove that under the Lp norm, the maximum vertex degree over all MSTs is equal to the Hadwiger number of the corresponding unit ball; we show an even tighter bound for MSTs where ..."
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Cited by 22 (1 self)
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Motivated by practical VLSI routing applications, we study the maximum vertex degree of a minimum spanning tree (MST). We prove that under the Lp norm, the maximum vertex degree over all MSTs is equal to the Hadwiger number of the corresponding unit ball; we show an even tighter bound for MSTs where the maximum degree is minimized. We give the bestknown bounds for the maximum MST degree for arbitrary Lp metrics in all dimensions, with a focus on the rectilinear metric in two and three dimensions. We show that for any finite set of points in the rectilinear plane there exists an MST with maximum degree of at most 4, and for threedimensional rectilinear space the maximum possible degree of a minimumdegree MST is either 13 or 14. 1 Introduction Minimum spanning tree (MST) construction is a classic optimization problem for which several efficient algorithms are known [9] [15] [19]. Solutions of many other problems hinge on the construction of an MST as an intermediary step [4], with th...
NonTree Routing
 IEEE Transactions on ComputerAided Design
, 1994
"... An implicit premise of existing routing methods is that the routing topology must correspond to a tree (i.e., it does not contain cycles). In this paper we investigate the consequences of abandoning this basic axiom, and instead allow routing topologies that correspond to arbitrary graphs (i.e., whe ..."
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Cited by 15 (2 self)
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An implicit premise of existing routing methods is that the routing topology must correspond to a tree (i.e., it does not contain cycles). In this paper we investigate the consequences of abandoning this basic axiom, and instead allow routing topologies that correspond to arbitrary graphs (i.e., where cycles are admissible) . We show that adding extra wires to an existing routing tree can often significantly improve signal propagation delay by exploiting a tradeoff between wire capacitance and resistance, and we propose a new routing algorithm based on this phenomenon. Using SPICE to determine the efficacy of our methods, we obtain dramatic results: for example, the judicious addition of a few extra wires to an existing Steiner routing reduces the signal propagation delay by an average of up to 62%, with relatively modest total wirelength increase, depending on net size and the technology parameters. Finally, we observe that nontree routing also significantly reduces signal skew. 1 I...
DynamicallyWiresized ElmoreBased Routing Constructions
 Proc. IEEE Intl. Symp. Circuits and Systems
, 1994
"... We analyze the impact of wiresizing on the performance of Elmorebased routing constructions. Whereas previous wiresizing schemes are static (i.e., they wiresize an existing topology), we introduce a new dynamic Elmorebased wiresizing technique, which uses wiresizing considerations to drive the ..."
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Cited by 12 (1 self)
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We analyze the impact of wiresizing on the performance of Elmorebased routing constructions. Whereas previous wiresizing schemes are static (i.e., they wiresize an existing topology), we introduce a new dynamic Elmorebased wiresizing technique, which uses wiresizing considerations to drive the routing construction itself. Simulations show that dynamic wiresizing affords superior performance over static wiresizing, and also avoids topological degeneracies. Moreover, dynamicallywiresized Elmorebased routing constructions significantly outperform all previous methods in term of maximum sourcesink signal delay, affording up to 77% SPICE delay improvement over traditional Steiner routing. 1 Introduction Interconnect delay has recently become a dominant concern in the design of complex, highperformance circuits, due to the scaling of VLSI technology [9] [36]. Performancedriven layout design has thus become an active area of research over the past several years, where for a giv...
An ArchitectureIndependent Unified Approach to FPGA Routing
, 1993
"... Fieldprogrammable gate arrays (FPGAs) are an inexpensive and flexible "low risk" design alternative to custom integrated circuits. While FPGA partitioning and technology mapping have been wellstudied, FPGA routing has received much less attention. In this paper we propose a unified ge ..."
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Cited by 3 (3 self)
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Fieldprogrammable gate arrays (FPGAs) are an inexpensive and flexible "low risk" design alternative to custom integrated circuits. While FPGA partitioning and technology mapping have been wellstudied, FPGA routing has received much less attention. In this paper we propose a unified general framework for FPGA routing, which allows simultaneous optimization of multiple competing objectives under a smooth designercontrolled tradeoff. Our approach is based on a new and general multiweighted graph formulation, enabling a good theoretical performance characterization, as well as an effective, practical implementation. Our router is architectureindependent, computationally efficient, and performs very well on industrial benchmarks. Finally, our multiweighted graph formulation is quite general and is directly applicable to many other areas of combinatorial optimization. 1 Introduction Fieldprogrammable gate arrays (FPGAs) are an inexpensive and flexible design alternative to c...