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182
OBBTree: A hierarchical structure for rapid interference detection
 Proc. ACM SIGGRAPH, 171–180
, 1996
"... {gottscha,lin,manocha}©cs. unc.edu We present a data structure and an algorithm for efficient and exact interference detection amongst complex models undergoing rigid motion. The algorithm is applicable to all general polygonal and curved models. It precomputes a hierarchical representation of mode ..."
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Cited by 658 (43 self)
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{gottscha,lin,manocha}©cs. unc.edu We present a data structure and an algorithm for efficient and exact interference detection amongst complex models undergoing rigid motion. The algorithm is applicable to all general polygonal and curved models. It precomputes a hierarchical representation of models using tightfitting oriented bounding box trees. At runtime, the algorithm traverses the tree and tests for overlaps between oriented bounding boxes based on a new separating axis theorem, which takes less than 200 operations in practice. It has been implemented and we compare its performance with other hierarchical data structures. In particular, it can accurately detect all the contacts between large complex geometries composed of hundreds of thousands of polygons at interactive rates, almost one order of magnitude faster than earlier methods.
Octrees for faster isosurface generation
 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON MEDICAL IMAGING
, 2000
"... The large size of many volume data sets often prevents visualization algorithms from providing interactive rendering. The use of hierarchical data structures can ameliorate this problem by storing summary information to prevent useless exploration of regions of little or no current interest within ..."
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Cited by 274 (3 self)
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The large size of many volume data sets often prevents visualization algorithms from providing interactive rendering. The use of hierarchical data structures can ameliorate this problem by storing summary information to prevent useless exploration of regions of little or no current interest within the volume. This paper discusses research into the use of the octree hierarchical data structure when the regions of current interest can vary during the application, and are not known a priori. Octrees are well suited to the sixsided cell structure of many volumes. A new spaceefficient design is introduced for octree representations of volumes whose resolutions are not conveniently a power of two; octrees following this design are called branchonneed octrees (BONOs). Also, a caching method is described that essentially passes information between octree neighbors whose visitation times may be quite different, then discards it when its useful life is over. Using the application of octrees to isosurface generation as a focus, space and time comparisons for octreebased versus more traditional "marching" methods are presented.
ICOLLIDE: An interactive and exact collision detection system for largescale environments
 In Proc. of ACM Interactive 3D Graphics Conference
, 1995
"... We present an exact and interactive collision detection system, ICOLLIDE, for largescale environments. Such environments are characterized by the number of objects undergoing rigid motion and the complexity of the models. The algorithm does not assume the objects ’ motions can be expressed as a c ..."
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Cited by 266 (26 self)
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We present an exact and interactive collision detection system, ICOLLIDE, for largescale environments. Such environments are characterized by the number of objects undergoing rigid motion and the complexity of the models. The algorithm does not assume the objects ’ motions can be expressed as a closed form function of time. The collision detection system is general and can be easily interfaced with a variety of applications. The algorithm uses a twolevel approach based on pruning multipleobject pairs using bounding boxes and performing exact collision detection between selected pairs of polyhedral models. We demonstrate the performance of the system in walkthrough and simulation environments consisting of a large number of moving objects. In particular, the system takes less than l/20 of a second to determine all the collisions and contacts in an environment consisting of more than a 1000 moving polytopes, each consisting of more than 50 faces on an HP9000/750. 1
Robust treatment of collisions, contact and friction for cloth animation
 ACM Transactions on Graphics
, 2002
"... We present an algorithm to efficiently and robustly process collisions, contact and friction in cloth simulation. It works with any technique for simulating the internal dynamics of the cloth, and allows true modeling of cloth thickness. We also show how our simulation data can be postprocessed wit ..."
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Cited by 236 (22 self)
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We present an algorithm to efficiently and robustly process collisions, contact and friction in cloth simulation. It works with any technique for simulating the internal dynamics of the cloth, and allows true modeling of cloth thickness. We also show how our simulation data can be postprocessed with a collisionaware subdivision scheme to produce smooth and interference free data for rendering.
Efficient collision detection using bounding volume hierarchies of kdops
 IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics
, 1998
"... Abstract—Collision detection is of paramount importance for many applications in computer graphics and visualization. Typically, the input to a collision detection algorithm is a large number of geometric objects comprising an environment, together with a set of objects moving within the environment ..."
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Cited by 228 (4 self)
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Abstract—Collision detection is of paramount importance for many applications in computer graphics and visualization. Typically, the input to a collision detection algorithm is a large number of geometric objects comprising an environment, together with a set of objects moving within the environment. In addition to determining accurately the contacts that occur between pairs of objects, one needs also to do so at realtime rates. Applications such as haptic forcefeedback can require over 1,000 collision queries per second. In this paper, we develop and analyze a method, based on boundingvolume hierarchies, for efficient collision detection for objects moving within highly complex environments. Our choice of bounding volume is to use a “discrete orientation polytope” (“kdop”), a convex polytope whose facets are determined by halfspaces whose outward normals come from a small fixed set of k orientations. We compare a variety of methods for constructing hierarchies (“BVtrees”) of bounding kdops. Further, we propose algorithms for maintaining an effective BVtree of kdops for moving objects, as they rotate, and for performing fast collision detection using BVtrees of the moving objects and of the environment. Our algorithms have been implemented and tested. We provide experimental evidence showing that our approach yields substantially faster collision detection than previous methods. Index Terms—Collision detection, intersection searching, bounding volume hierarchies, discrete orientation polytopes, bounding boxes, virtual reality, virtual environments. 1
Analytical methods for dynamic simulation of nonpenetrating rigid bodies
 In Proc. of ACM SIGGRAPH ’89
, 1989
"... A method for analytically calculating the forces between systems of rigid bodies in resting (noncolliding) contact is presented. The systems of bodies may either be in motion or static equilibrium and adjacent bodies may touch at multiple points. The analytic formulation of the forces between bodie ..."
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Cited by 182 (8 self)
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A method for analytically calculating the forces between systems of rigid bodies in resting (noncolliding) contact is presented. The systems of bodies may either be in motion or static equilibrium and adjacent bodies may touch at multiple points. The analytic formulation of the forces between bodies in noncolliding contact can be modified to deal with colliding bodies. Accordingly, an improved method for analytically calculating the forces between systems of rigid bodies in colliding contact is also presented. Both methods can be applied to systems with arbitrary holonomic geometric constraints, such as linked figures. The analytical formulations used treat both holonomic and nonholonomic constraints in a consistent manner.
Approximating Polyhedra with Spheres for TimeCritical Collision Detection
 ACM Transactions on Graphics
, 1996
"... This paper presents a method for approximating polyhedral objects to support a timecritical collisiondetection algorithm. The approximations are hierarchies of spheres, and they allow the timecritical algorithm to progressively refine the accuracy of its detection, stopping as needed to maintain ..."
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Cited by 178 (1 self)
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This paper presents a method for approximating polyhedral objects to support a timecritical collisiondetection algorithm. The approximations are hierarchies of spheres, and they allow the timecritical algorithm to progressively refine the accuracy of its detection, stopping as needed to maintain the realtime performance essential for interactive applications. The key to this approach is a preprocess that automatically builds tightly fitting hierarchies for rigid and articulated objects. The preprocess uses medialaxis surfaces, which are skeletal representations of objects. These skeletons guide an optimization technique that gives the hierarchies accuracy properties appropriate for collision detection. In a sample application, hierarchies built this way allow the timecritical collisiondetection algorithm to have acceptable accuracy, improving significantly on that possible with hierarchies built by previous techniques. The performance of the timecritical algorithm in this appli...
Physically Based Motion Transformation
 SIGGRAPH 1999
, 1999
"... We introduce a novel algorithm for transforming character animation sequences that preserves essential physical properties of the motion. By using the spacetime constraints dynamics formulation our algorithm maintains realism of the original motion sequence without sacrificing full user control of t ..."
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Cited by 176 (7 self)
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We introduce a novel algorithm for transforming character animation sequences that preserves essential physical properties of the motion. By using the spacetime constraints dynamics formulation our algorithm maintains realism of the original motion sequence without sacrificing full user control of the editing process. In contrast to
Collision Detection for Interactive Graphics Applications
 IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics
, 1995
"... Solid objects in the real world do not pass through each other when they collide. Enforcing this property of "solidness" is important in many interactive graphics applications; for example, solidness makes virtual reality more believable, and solidness is essential for the correctness of vehicle sim ..."
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Cited by 173 (5 self)
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Solid objects in the real world do not pass through each other when they collide. Enforcing this property of "solidness" is important in many interactive graphics applications; for example, solidness makes virtual reality more believable, and solidness is essential for the correctness of vehicle simulators. These applications use a collisiondetection algorithm to enforce the solidness of objects. Unfortunately, previous collisiondetection algorithms do not adequately address the needs of interactive applications. To work in these applications, a collisiondetection algorithm must run at realtime rates, even when many objects can collide, and it must tolerate objects whose motion is specified "on the fly" by a user. This dissertation describes a new collisiondetection algorithm that meets these criteria through approximation and graceful degradation, elements of timecritical computing. The algorithm is not only fast but also interruptible, allowing an application to trade accuracy ...
Impulsebased Simulation of Rigid Bodies
, 1995
"... We introduce a promising new approach to rigid body dynamic simulation called impulsebased simulation. The method is well suited to modeling physical systems with large numbers of collisions, or with contact modes that change frequently. All types of contact (colliding, rolling, sliding, and restin ..."
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Cited by 141 (11 self)
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We introduce a promising new approach to rigid body dynamic simulation called impulsebased simulation. The method is well suited to modeling physical systems with large numbers of collisions, or with contact modes that change frequently. All types of contact (colliding, rolling, sliding, and resting) are modeled through a series of collision impulses between the objects in contact, hence the method is simpler and faster than constraintbased simulation. We have implemented an impulsebased simulator that can currently achieve interactive simulation times, and real time simulation seems within reach. In addition, the simulator has produced physically accurate results in several qualitative and quantitative experiments. After giving an overview of impulsebased dynamic simulation, we discuss collision detection and collision response in this context, and present