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43
Constraint Networks
, 1992
"... Constraintbased reasoning is a paradigm for formulating knowledge as a set of constraints without specifying the method by which these constraints are to be satisfied. A variety of techniques have been developed for finding partial or complete solutions for different kinds of constraint expression ..."
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Cited by 1112 (43 self)
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Constraintbased reasoning is a paradigm for formulating knowledge as a set of constraints without specifying the method by which these constraints are to be satisfied. A variety of techniques have been developed for finding partial or complete solutions for different kinds of constraint expressions. These have been successfully applied to diverse tasks such as design, diagnosis, truth maintenance, scheduling, spatiotemporal reasoning, logic programming and user interface. Constraint networks are graphical representations used to guide strategies for solving constraint satisfaction problems (CSPs).
A Generic ArcConsistency Algorithm and its Specializations
 Artificial Intelligence
, 1992
"... Consistency techniques have been studied extensively in the past as a way of tackling constraint satisfaction problems (CSP). In particular, various arcconsistency algorithms have been proposed, originating from Waltz's filtering algorithm [26] and culminating in the optimal algorithm AC4 of ..."
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Cited by 211 (7 self)
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Consistency techniques have been studied extensively in the past as a way of tackling constraint satisfaction problems (CSP). In particular, various arcconsistency algorithms have been proposed, originating from Waltz's filtering algorithm [26] and culminating in the optimal algorithm AC4 of Mohr and Henderson [15]. AC4 runs in O(ed 2 ) in the worst case, where e is the number of arcs (or constraints) and d is the size of the largest domain. Being applicable to the whole class of (binary) CSP, these algorithms do not take into account the semantics of constraints. In this paper, we present a new generic arcconsistency algorithm AC5. This algorithm is parametrized on two specified procedures and can be instantiated to reduce to AC3 and AC4. More important, AC5 can be instantiated to produce an O(ed) algorithm for a number of important classes of constraints: functional, antifunctional, monotonic and their generalization to (functional, antifunctional, and monotonic) piecewise constraints. We also show that AC5 has an important application in constraint logic programming over finite domains [23]. The kernel of the constraint solver for such a programming language is an arcconsistency algorithm for a set of basic constraints. We prove that AC5, in conjunction with node consistency, provides a decision procedure for these constraints running in time O(ed).
Compiling Constraints in clp(FD)
, 1996
"... We present the clp(FD) system: a Constraint Logic Programming language with finite domain constraints... ..."
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Cited by 170 (24 self)
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We present the clp(FD) system: a Constraint Logic Programming language with finite domain constraints...
Recent Advances in AI Planning
 AI MAGAZINE
, 1999
"... The past five years have seen dramatic advances in planning algorithms, with an emphasis on propositional methods such as Graphplan and compilers that convert planning problems into propositional CNF formulae for solution via systematic or stochastic SAT methods. Related work on the Deep Space O ..."
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Cited by 121 (0 self)
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The past five years have seen dramatic advances in planning algorithms, with an emphasis on propositional methods such as Graphplan and compilers that convert planning problems into propositional CNF formulae for solution via systematic or stochastic SAT methods. Related work on the Deep Space One spacecraft control algorithms advances our understanding of interleaved planning and execution. In this survey,we explain the latest techniques and suggest areas for future research.
An Empirical Study of Dynamic Variable Ordering Heuristics for the Constraint Satisfaction Problem
 In Proceedings of CP96
, 1996
"... . The constraint satisfaction community has developed a number of heuristics for variable ordering during backtracking search. For example, in conjunction with algorithms which check forwards, the FailFirst (FF) and Brelaz (Bz) heuristics are cheap to evaluate and are generally considered to be ver ..."
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Cited by 87 (16 self)
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. The constraint satisfaction community has developed a number of heuristics for variable ordering during backtracking search. For example, in conjunction with algorithms which check forwards, the FailFirst (FF) and Brelaz (Bz) heuristics are cheap to evaluate and are generally considered to be very effective. Recent work to understand phase transitions in NPcomplete problem classes enables us to compare such heuristics over a large range of different kinds of problems. Furthermore, we are now able to start to understand the reasons for the success, and therefore also the failure, of heuristics, and to introduce new heuristics which achieve the successes and avoid the failures. In this paper, we present a comparison of the Bz and FF heuristics in forward checking algorithms applied to randomlygenerated binary CSP's. We also introduce new and very general heuristics and present an extensive study of these. These new heuristics are usually as good as or better than Bz and FF, and we id...
Extracting Buildings from Aerial Images using Hierarchical Aggregation in 2D and 3D
, 1998
"... We propose a modelbased approach to automated 3D extraction of buildings from aerial images. We focus on a reconstruction strategy that is not restricted to a small class of buildings. Therefore, we employ a generic modeling approach which relies on the well dened combination of building part mo ..."
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Cited by 73 (4 self)
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We propose a modelbased approach to automated 3D extraction of buildings from aerial images. We focus on a reconstruction strategy that is not restricted to a small class of buildings. Therefore, we employ a generic modeling approach which relies on the well dened combination of building part models. Building parts are classied by their roof type.
A Minimal Extension of the WAM for clp(FD)
 Proceedings of the Tenth International Conference on Logic Programming
, 1993
"... We present an abstract instruction set for a constraint solver over finite domains, which can be smoothly integrated in the WAM architecture. It is based on the use of a single primitive constraint X in r which embeds the core propagation mechanism. Complex user constraints such as linear equations ..."
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Cited by 72 (8 self)
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We present an abstract instruction set for a constraint solver over finite domains, which can be smoothly integrated in the WAM architecture. It is based on the use of a single primitive constraint X in r which embeds the core propagation mechanism. Complex user constraints such as linear equations or inequations are compiled into X in r expressions which encode the propagation scheme chosen to solve the constraint. The uniform treatment of a single primitive constraint leads to a better understanding of the overall constraint solving process and makes possible three main global optimizations which encompass many previous particular optimizations of "black box" finite domains solvers. Implementation results show that this approach combines both simplicity and efficiency. Our clp(FD) system is more than twice as fast as CHIP on average, with peak speedup reaching seven. 1 Introduction Constraint Logic Programming (CLP) has shown to be a very active field of research over recent years, ...
SATbased Procedures for Temporal Reasoning
, 1999
"... In this paper we study the consistency problem for a set of disjunctive temporal constraints [Stergiou and Koubarakis, 1998]. We propose two SATbased procedures, and show thaton sets of binary randomly generated disjunctive constraintsthey perform up to 2 orders of magnitude less consistency ..."
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Cited by 67 (6 self)
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In this paper we study the consistency problem for a set of disjunctive temporal constraints [Stergiou and Koubarakis, 1998]. We propose two SATbased procedures, and show thaton sets of binary randomly generated disjunctive constraintsthey perform up to 2 orders of magnitude less consistency checks than the best procedure presented in [Stergiou and Koubarakis, 1998]. On these tests, our experimental analysis conrms Stergiou and Koubarakis's result about the existence of an easyhardeasy pattern whose peak corresponds to a value in between 6 and 7 of the ratio of clauses to variables.
Efficient methods for qualitative spatial reasoning
 Proceedings of the 13th European Conference on Artificial Intelligence
, 1998
"... The theoretical properties of qualitative spatial reasoning in the RCC8 framework have been analyzed extensively. However, no empirical investigation has been made yet. Our experiments show that the adaption of the algorithms used for qualitative temporal reasoning can solve large RCC8 instances, ..."
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Cited by 55 (14 self)
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The theoretical properties of qualitative spatial reasoning in the RCC8 framework have been analyzed extensively. However, no empirical investigation has been made yet. Our experiments show that the adaption of the algorithms used for qualitative temporal reasoning can solve large RCC8 instances, even if they are in the phase transition region  provided that one uses the maximal tractable subsets of RCC8 that have been identified by us. In particular, we demonstrate that the orthogonal combination of heuristic methods is successful in solving almost all apparently hard instances in the phase transition region up to a certain size in reasonable time.